Animal Spatial Cognition References

Abbot, H.G. (1962). The seed preferences of mice and voles in the Northeast. Journal of Forestry, 60, 97-99.

Able, K.P. (1980). Mechanisms of orientation, navigation and homing. In S. Gauthreaux (Ed.), Animal migration, orientation and navigation (pp. 283-373). New York: Academic Press.

Able, K.P. (1982). Skylight polarization patterns at dusk influence the migratory orientation of birds. Nature, 299, 550-551.

Able, K.P. (2000). The concepts and terminology of bird navigation. Journal of Avian Biology, 32, 174-183.

Able, K.P., & Able, M.A. (1990). Calibration of the magnetic compass by a migratory bird by celestial rotation. Nature, 347, 378-380.

Able, K.P., & Able, M.A. (1993). Daytime calibration of magnetic orientation in a migratory bird requires a view of skylight polarization. Nature, 364, 523-525.

Able, K.P., & Able, M.A. (1997). Development of sunset orientation cues in a migratory bird: no calibration by the magnetic field. Animal Behaviour, 53, 363-368.

Aggleton, J.P., & Brown, M.W. (1999). Episodic memory, amnesia, and the hippocampal-thalamic axis. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 22, 425-498.

Albert, W.S., & Golledge, R.G. (1998). The use of spatial cognitive abilities in geographic information systems: The map overlay operation. Transactions in GIS, 3(1), 7-21.

Alheid, G.F., de Olmos, J.S., & Beltramino, C.A. (1995). Amygdala and extended amygdala. In G. Paxinos (Ed.), The rat nervous system, 2nd Edition (pp. 495-578). Australia: Academic Press.

Allen, G.L. (2000). Men and women, maps and minds: Cognitive bases of sex-related differences in reading and interpreting maps. In S. O'Nuallain (Ed.), Spatial cognition:  Foundations and applications (pp. 3-18). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Alvarez-Leefmans, F.J., & Gardiner-Medwin, A.R. (1975). Influences of the septum on the hippocampal dentate area which are unaccompanied by field potentials. The Journal of Physiology, 249, 14P-16P.

Alyan, S., & McNaughton, B.L. (1999). Hippocampectomized rats are capable of homing by path integration. Behavioral Neuroscience, 113, 19-31.

Anagnostaras, S.G., Gale, G.D., & Fanselow, M.S. (2001). Hippocampus and contextual fear conditioning: Recent controversies and advances. Hippocampus, 11, 8-17.

Annett, L.E., McGregor, A., & Robbins, T.W. (1989). The effects of ibotenic acid lesions of the nucleus accumbens on spatial learning and extinction in the rat. Behavioural Brain Research, 31, 231-242.

Arleo, A., Millan, J., & Floreano, D. (1999). Efficient learning of variable-resolution cognitive maps for autonomous indoor navigation. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 15, 990-1001.

Assaf, S.Y., & Miller, J.J. (1978). Neuronal transmission in the dentate gyrus: Role of inhibitory mechanisms. Brain Research, 151, 587-592.

Atkinson, R.C., & Shiffrin, R.M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K.W. Spence and J.T. Spence (Eds.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (Vol. 2, pp. 89-195). New York: Academic Press.

Avraamides, M.N., Klatzky, R.L., Loomis, J.M., & Golledge, R.G. (2004). Use of cognitive versus perceptual heading during imagined locomotion depends on the response mode. Psychological Science, 15(6), 403-408.

Bachelder, I.A., & Waxman, A.M. (1994). Mobile robot visual mapping and localization: A view based neurocomputational architecture that emulates hippocampal place learning, Neural Networks, 7, 1083-1099.  

Baddeley, A. (1986). Working memory. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Balda, R.P. (1980). Recovery of cached seeds by a captive Nucifraga caryocatactes. Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie, 52, 331-346.

Balda, R.P. (1980). Are seed caching systems co-evolved? Acta XVII Congr. International Ornithology. 2, 1185-1191.

Balda, R.P. (1987). Avian impacts on pinyon-juniper woodlands. In L. Evertt (Ed.) Proceedings of the pinyon-juniper conference (No. 7, pp. 525-533). General Technical Report (INT-215). Reno, NV: U.S. Forest Service.

Balda, R.P. (2002). Pinyon jay (Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus). In  A. Poole, & F. Gill (Eds.), The birds of North America (No. 605). Philadelphia, PA: The Birds of North America, Inc.

Balda, R.P., & Bateman, G.C. (1971). Flocking and annual cycle of the pinyon jay. Condor, 75, 287-302.

Balda, R.P., & Bateman, G.C. (1972). The breeding biology of the pinyon jay. Living Bird, 11, 5-42.

Balda, R.P., & Kamil, A.C. (1989). A comparative study of cache recovery by three corvid species. Animal Behaviour, 38, 486-495.

Balda, R.P., & Kamil, A.C. (1992). Long-term spatial memory in Clark’s nutcracker, Nucifraga columbiana. Animal Behaviour 44, 761-769.

Balda, R.P., & Kamil, A.C. (1998). The ecology and evolution of spatial memory in corvids of the southwestern USA: The perplexing Pinyon Jay. P. Balda, I.M. Pepperberg, & A.C. Kamil (Eds.), Animal Cognition in Nature 7 (pp. 33-66). London, UK: Academic Press.

Balda, R. P., & Turek, R.J. (1984). The cache-recovery system as an example of memory capabilities in Clark's nutcracker. In H. L. Roitblat, T.G. Beaver, & H.S. Terrace (Eds.), Animal Cognition (pp. 513-532). London, UK: Erlbaum Associates.

Balda, R. P., & Wiltschko, W. (1991). Caching and recovery in scrub jays: Transfer of sun-compass directions from shaded to sunny areas. Condor, 93, 1020-1023.

Baldocchi, D.D. (1989). Turbulent transfer in a deciduous forest. Tree Physiology, 5, 357-377.

Barsalou, LW. (1999). Perceptual symbol systems. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 22, 577-660.

Basil, J.A. (1993). Neuroanatomical and behavioral correlates of spatial memory in Clark's nutcrackers. Unpublished PhD. Dissertation, University of Massachusetts.

Basil, J.A., Kamil, A.C., Balda, R.P., & Fite, K.V. Differences in hippocampus volume among food storing corvids. Brain, Behavior and Evolution, 47, 156-164.

Bateman, G.C., & Balda, R.P. (1973). Growth, development, and food habits of young pinyon jays. Auk, 90, 39-61.

Beason, R.C., & Semm, P. (1987).  Magnetic responses of the trigeminal nerve system of the Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus. Neuroscience Letters, 80, 229-234. 

Beason, R.C., & Semm, P. (1996). Does the avian ophthalmic nerve carry magnetic navigational information? Journal of Experimental Biology, 199, 1241-1244.

Beason, R.C., Wiltschko, R., & Wiltschko, W. (1997). Pigeon homing: Effects of magnetic pulses on initial orientation. The Auk, 114(3), 405-415. 

Bednekoff, P.A. & Balda, R.P. (1996a). Social caching and observational spatial memory in pinyon jays. Behaviour, 133, 807-826.

Bednekoff, P.A., & Balda, R.P. (1996b). Observational spatial memory in Clark's nutcrackers and Mexican jays. Animal Behaviour, 52, 833-839.

Bednekoff, P.A., & Balda, R.P. (1997). Clark's nutcracker spatial memory: Many errors might not be due to forgetting. Animal Behaviour, 54, 691-698.

Bednekoff, P.A., Balda, R.P., Kamil, A.C., & Hile, A.L. (1997). Long term spatial memory in four seed caching corvid species. Animal Behaviour, 53, 335-341.

Bendire (1895). Life histories of North American birds. U.S. National Museum Bulletin, 3.

Benhamou, S., & Bovet, P. (1992). Distinguishing between elementary orientation mechanisms by means of path analysis.  Animal Behaviour, 43, 371-377.

Benhamou, S., & Poucet, B. (1998). Landmark use by navigating rats (Rattus norvegicus): Contrasting geometric and featural information. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 112, 317-322.

Benhamou, S., Poucet, B., & Bovet, P. (1995). A model for place navigation in mammals. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 173, 163-178.

Benkman, C.W., Balda, R.P., & Smith, C.C. (1984).Adaptations for seed dispersal and the compromises due to seed predation in limber pine. Ecology 65: 632-642.

Bennett, A.T.D. (1993). Spatial memory in a food storing corvid. I. Near tall landmarks are primarily used. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 173, 193-207.            

Bennett, A.T.D. (1996). Do animals have cognitive maps? The Journal of Experimental Biology, 1999, 219-224.

Benvenuti, S., & Wallraff, H.G. (1985). Pigeon navigation: Site simulation by means of atmospheric odours. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 156, 737-746.

Berlyne, D.E. (1950). Novelty and curiosity as determinants of exploratory behavior. British Journal of Psychology, 41, 68-80.

Berthold, P. (1990). Spatiotemporal programs and genetics of orientation. Experientia, 46, 363-371.

Berthold, P. (1991). Genetic control of migratory behaviour in birds. TREE, 6, 254-257. 

Berthold, P. (2003). Genetic basis and evolutionary aspects of bird migration. Advances in the Study of Behavior, 33, 175-229.

Berthold, P., & Querner, U. (1981) Genetic basis of migratory behavior in European warblers. Science, 212, 77-79.

Best, P.J., & White, A.M. (1999). Placing hippocampal single-unit studies in a historical context. Hippocampus, 9, 346-351.

Best, P.J., White, A.M., & Minai, A. (2001). Spatial processing in the brain: The activity of hippocampal place cells. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 24, 459-486.

Biegler, R. (1996). Short and medium range navigation and its relationship to cognitive mapping and associative learning. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Biegler, R. (2000).  Possible uses of path integration in animal navigation. Animal Learning & Behavior, 28(3), 257-277.

Biegler, R. (2003). Reading cognitive and other maps: How to avoid getting buried in thought. In K. J. Jeffery (Ed.), The neurobiology of spatial behaviour. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Biegler, R., McGregor, A., Krebs, J.R., & Healy, S.D. (2001). A larger hippocampus is associated with longer-lasting spatial memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98, 6941-6944.

Bilge, A.R., & Taylor, H.A. (2006). Learning nested environment from maps: Is spatial updating simultaneous? Unpublished data. Tufts University.

Bilkey, D.K., & Goddard, G.V. (1985). Medial septal facilitation of hippocampal granule cell activity is mediated by inhibition of inhibitory interneurones. Brain Research, 361, 99-106.

Bingman, V.P. (1983). Magnetic field orientation of migratory Savannah sparrows with different first summer experience. Behaviour, 87, 43-53.

Bingman, V.P., Bagnoli, P., Ioalé, P., & Casini, G. (1984). Homing behavior of pigeons after telencephalic ablations. Brain, Behavior and Evolution, 24, 94-106.

Bingman, V.P., Budzynski, C.A., & Voggenhuber, A. (2003). Migratory systems as adaptive responses to spatial and temporal variability in orientation stimuli. In P. Berthold, E. Gwinner, & E. Sonnenschein (Eds.), Avian migration (pp. 457-469). Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg-New York.

Bingman, V.P., & Cheng, K. (2005). Mechanisms of animal global navigation: Comparative perspectives and enduring challenges. Ethology, Ecology & Evolution, 17, 295-318.

Bingman, V.P., Gagliardo, A., & Ioalè, P. (1996). Hippocampal participation in the sun compass orientation of phase-shifted homing pigeons. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 179, 695-702. 

Bingman, V.P., Hough II, G.E., Kahn, M.C., & Siegel, J.J. (2003). The homing pigeon hippocampus and space: In search of adaptive specialization. Brain, Behavior and Evolution, 62, 117-127.

Bingman, V.P., Ioalé, P., Casini, G., & Bagnoli, P. (1990). The avian hippocampus: Evidence for a role in the development of the homing pigeon navigational map. Behavioral Neuroscience, 104, 906-911.

Bingman, V.P., & Jones, T.J. (1994). Sun compass based spatial learning impaired in homing pigeons with hippocampal lesions. Journal of Neuroscience, 14, 6687-6694.

Biro, D., Meade, J., & Guilford, T. (2004). Familiar route loyalty implies visual pilotage in the homing pigeon. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 17440-17443.

Blackford-Cook, S. (1969). Experiments on homing in the limpet Siphonaria normalisAnimal Behaviour, 17, 679-682.

Bletz, H., Weindler, P., Wiltschko, R., & Wiltschko, W. (1996). The magnetic field as reference for the innate migratory direction in blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla). Naturwissenschaften, 83, 430-432. 

Blum, K.I., & Abbott, L.R. (1996). A model of spatial map formation in the hippocampus of the rat. Neural Computation, 8, 85-93.

Bock, W.J., Balda, R.P., & Vander Wall, S.B. (1973). Morphology of the sublingual pouch and tongue musculature in Clark's nutcrackers. Auk, 90, 491-519.

Boles, L.C., & Lohmann, K.J. (2003).  True navigation and magnetic maps in spiny lobsters.  Nature, 421, 60-63.

Bostock, E., Muller, R.U., & Kubie, J.L. (1991). Experience-dependent modifications of hippocampal place cell firing. Hippocampus, 1, 193-205.

Bower, G.H., & Morrow, D.G. (1990). Mental models in narrative comprehension. Science, 247(4938), 44-48.

Bower, G.H., & Rinck, M. (2001). Selecting one among many referents in spatial situation models. Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27, 81-98.

Braithwaite, V.A., & Girvan, J.R. (2003). Use of water flow direction to provide spatial information in a small-scale orientation task. Journal of Fish Biology, 63, 74-83.

Breese, C.R., Hampson, R.E., & Deadwyler, S.A. (1989). Hippocampal place cells: Stereotypy and plasticity. Journal of Neuroscience, 9, 1097-1111.

Brines, M.L., & Gould, J.L. (1982). Skylight polarization patterns and animal orientation. Journal of Experimental Biology, 96, 69-91.

Brodbeck, D.R. (1994). Memory for spatial and local cues - A comparison of a storing and a non-storing species. Animal Learning & Behavior, 22, 119-133.

Brodbeck, D.R. & Shettleworth, S.J. (1995). Matching location and color of a compound stimulus - comparison of a food-storing and a nonstoring bird species. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 21, 64-77.

van den Broek, P., Rapp, D.N., & Kendeou, P. (2005). Integrating memory-based and constructionist processes in accounts of reading comprehension. Discourse Processes, 39, 299-316.

van den Broek, P., Risden, K., Fletcher, C.R., & Thurlow, R. (1996). A "landscape" view of reading: Fluctuating patterns of activation and the construction of a stable memory representation. In B. K. Britton & A. C. Graesser (Eds.), Models of understanding text (pp. 165-187). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Brown, J.L. (1994). Mexican jay (Aphelocoma ultramarine). In A. Poole, & F. Gill (Eds.), The birds of North America, no.118. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington D. C.

Brown, M.A., & Sharp, P.E. (1995). Simulation of spatial learning in the Morris water maze by a neural network model of the hippocampus and nucleus accumbens. Hippocampus, 5(3), 171-188.

Brown, M.F., DiGello, E., Milewski, M., Wilson, M., & Kozak, M. (2000). Spatial pattern learning in rats: Conditional control by two patterns. Animal Learning & Behavior, 28, 278-287.

Brown, M.F., & Huggins, C.K. (1993). Maze-arm length affects a choice criterion in the radial-arm maze. Animal Learning & Behavior, 21, 68-72.

Brown, M.F., & Lesniak-Karpiak, K.B. (1993). Choice criterion effects in the radial-arm maze: Maze-arm incline and brightness. Learning and Motivation, 24, 23-39.

Brown, M.F., & Terrinoni, M. (1996). Control of choice by the spatial configuration of goals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 22, 438-446.

Brown, M.F., & Wintersteen, J. (2004). Spatial pattern learning and spatial working memory. Learning & Behavior, 34, 391-400.

Brown, M.F., Yang, S.Y., & DiGian, K.A. (2002). No evidence for overshadowing or facilitation of spatial pattern learning by visual cues. Animal Learning & Behavior, 30, 363-375.

Brown, M.F., Zeiler, C., & John, A. (2001). Spatial pattern learning in rats: Control by an iterative pattern. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 27, 407-416.

Brown, S.F., & Mellgren, R.L. (1994). Distinction between places and paths in rats' spatial representation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 20(1), 20-31.

Brunye, T.T., Taylor, H.A., & Rapp, D.N. (2005). Putting things together: Memory mechanisms underlying the benefits of multimedia learning. Paper presented at the 46th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Toronto, Ontario.

Budzynski, C.A., Dyer, F.C., & Bingman, V.P. (2000). Partial experience with the arc of the sun is sufficient for all day sun compass orientation in young homing pigeons, Columbia liviaJournal of Experimental Biology, 203, 2341 - 2348. 

Bures, J., Buresova, O., & Nerad, L. (1992). Can rats solve a simple version of the travelling salesman problem?  Behavioural Brain Research, 52, 133-142.

Buresova, O., Homuta, L., Krekule, I., & Bures, J. (1988). Does non-directional signalization of target distance contribute to navigation in the Morris water maze?  Behavioral and Neural Biology, 49(2), 240-248.

Burgess, N., Jackson, A., Hartley, T., & O’Keefe, J. (2000). Predictions derived from modeling the hippocampal role in navigation.  Biological Cybernetics, 83, 301-312.

Burgess, N., & O’Keefe, J. (2003). Neural representations in human spatial memory. Trends in Cognitive Science, 7, 517-519.

Burgess, N., Recce, M., & O'Keefe, J. (1994). A model of hippocampal function. Neural Networks, 7, 1065-1081.

Burnell, K.L., & Tomback, D.F. (1985). Steller's jays steal gray jay caches: Field and laboratory observations. Auk, 102, 417-491. 

Burt, T., Holland, R., & Guilford, T. (1997).  Further evidence for visual landmarks involvement in the pigeons' familiar area map. Animal Behavior, 53, 1203-1209.

Buzsaki, G. (2002). Theta oscillations in the hippocampus. Neuron, 33, 325-340.

Cain, P., & Malwal, S. (2002). Landmark use and development of navigation behaviour in the weakly electric fish Gnathonemus petersii (Mormyridae; Teleostei). Journal of Experimental Biology, 205, 3915-3923.

Canfield, J.G., & Mizumori, S.J. (2004). Methods for chronic neural recording in the telencephalon of freely behaving fish. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 133, 127-134.

Car, A. (1998). Hierarchical spatial reasoning: A geocomputation method. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on GeoComputation, 17-19 September, Bristol.

Cardinal, R.N., Winstanley, C.A., Robbins, T.W., Everitt, B.J. (2004). Limbic corticostriatal systems and delayed reinforcement. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1021, 33-50.

Carlson-Radvansky, L.A., & Radvansky, G.A. (1996). The influence of functional relations on spatial term selection. Psychological Science, 7(1), 56-60.

Cartwright, B.A., & Collett, T.S. (1982). How honey bees use landmarks to guide their return to food. Nature, 295, 560-564.

Cartwright, B.A, & Collett, T.S. (1983). Landmark learning in bees: Experiments and models. Journal of Comparative Physiology, 151, 521-543.

Chamizo, V.D. (2003). Acquisition of knowledge about spatial location: Assessing the generality of the mechanism of learning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 56B, 102-113.

Charnov, E.L. (1976). Optimal foraging: The marginal value theorem. Theoretical Population Biology, 9, 129-136.

Chen, B. (2000). Differential spatial memory by male and female pinyon jays. Unpublished M.S. thesis. Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff.

Cheng, K. (1986). A purely geometric module in the rat’s spatial representation. Cognition, 23, 149-178.

Cheng, K. (1988). Some psychophysics of the pigeon‘s use of landmarks. Journal of Comparative Physiology A. 162, 815-826.

Cheng, K. (1990). More psychophysics of the pigeon‘s use of landmarks. Journal of Comparative Physiology A. 166, 857-863.

Cheng, K. (2000). How honeybees find a place: Lessons from a simple mind.  Animal Learning & Behavior, 28(1), 1-15.

Cheng, K. (2005a). Reflections on geometry and navigation. Connection Science, 17, 5-21.

Cheng, K. (2005b). Goldfish matching geometric and featural cues: A re-interpretation of some of the data of Vargas et al. (2004). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 119, 455-457.

Cheng, K., Collett, T.S., Pickhard, A., & Wehner, R. (1987). The use of visual landmarks by honeybees: Bees weight landmarks according to their distance from the goal. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 161, 469-475.

Cheng, K., & Gallistel, C.R. (1984). Testing the geometric power of a spatial representation. In H.L. Roitblat, H.S. Terrace, & T.G. Bever (Eds.), Animal cognition (pp. 409-423). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Cheng, K., & Gallistel, C.R. (2005). Shape parameters explain data from spatial transformations: Comment on Pearce et al. (2004) and Tommasi, & Polli (2004). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 31, 254-259.

Cheng, K., & Newcombe, N.S. (2005). Is there a geometric module for spatial orientation? Squaring theory and evidence. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12, 1-23.

Cheng, K., & Sherry, D.F. (1992). Landmark-based spatial memory in birds (Parus atricapillus and Columbia livia): The use of edges and distances to represent spatial positions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 106, 331-341.

Cheng, K., & Spetch, M.L. (1998). Mechanisms of landmarks use in mammals and birds. In S. D. Healy (Ed.), Spatial representation in animals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Chew, G.L., Sutherland, R.J., & Whishaw, I.Q. (1989). Latent learning does not produce instantaneous transfer of place navigation: A rejoinder to Keith and McVety.  Psychobiology, 17, 207-209.

Chittka, L., & Geiger, K. (1995a). The influences of landmarks on distance estimation of honey bees. Animal Behaviour, 50, 23-31.

Chittka, L., & Geiger, K. (1995b). Honeybee long-distance orientation in a controlled environment. Ethology, 99, 117-126.

Chittka, L., & Kunze, J. (1995). The significance of landmarks for path integration in homing honeybee foragers.  Naturwissenschaften, 82, 341-343.

Chown, E., Kaplan, S., & Kortenkamp, D. (1995). Prototypes, location, and associative networks (PLAN): Toward a unified theory of cognitive mapping. Cognitive Science, 19, 1-51.

Christensen, K.M., & Whitham, T.G. (1993). Impact of insect herbivores on competition between birds and mammals for pinyon pine seeds. Ecology, 74, 2270-2278.

Clark, L., & Shah, P.S. (1992). Information content of odor plumes: What do Leach's Storm Petrels know? In R.L. Doty & D. Muller-Schwarze (Eds.), Chemical Signals in Vertebrates (Vol. 6, pp. 421-427). New York: Plenum Press.

Clayton, N.S., & Krebs, J.R. (1994). Memory for spatial and object-specific cues in food-storing and non-storing birds. Journal of Comparative Physiology A: Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology, 174, 371-379.

Clifford, K.T., Gross, L., Johnson, K., Martin, K. J., Shaheen, N., & Harrington, M.A. (2003). Slime-trail tracking in the predatory snail, Euglandina rosea.  Behavioral Neuroscience, 117(5), 1086-1095.

Cochran, W.W., Mouritsen, H., & Wikelski, M. (2004). Migrating songbirds recalibrate their magnetic compass daily from twilight cues. Science, 304, 405-408.

Cohen, N.J., & Eichenbaum, H. (1994). Memory, amnesia, and the hippocampal system. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Cohen, P., Johnston, M., McGee, D., Oviatt, S., Clow, J., & Smith, I. (1998). The efficiency of multimodal interaction: A case study. Paper presented at the International Conference on Spoken Language Processes, Australia.

Colby, C.L., & Goldberg, M.E. (1999). Space and attention in parietal cortex. Annu Reviews in the Neurosciencesence, 22, 319-349.

Collett, M., & Collett, T.S. (2000). How do insects use path integration for their navigation? Biological Cybernetics, 83, 245-259.

Collett, M., Collett, T.S., Bisch, S., & Wehner, R. (1998). Local and global vectors in desert ant navigation. Nature, 394, 269-272.

Collett, T.S. (1982).  Do toads plan routes?  A study of detour behaviour in Bufo viridisJournal of Comparative Physiology, 146, 261-271.

Collett, T.S. (1995). Making learning easy: The acquisition of visual information during the orientation flight of social wasps. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 177, 737-747.

Collett, T.S. (1996). Insect navigation en route to the goal: Multiple strategies for the use of landmarks. Journal of Experimental Biology, 199(1), 227-235.

Collett, T.S., & Baron, J. (1994). Biological compasses and the coordinate frame of landmark memories in honeybees. Nature, 368, 137-140.

Collett, T.S., Dillmann, E., Giger, A., & Wehner, R. (1992). Visual landmarks and route following in desert ants. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 170, 435-442.

Collett, T.S., & Harkness, L.I.K. (1982). Depth vision in animals. In D. J. Ingle, M. A. Goodale. & R. J. W. Mansfield (Eds.), Analysis of visual behavior. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Cook, A. (1977). Mucus trail following by the slug Limax grossui Lupu. Animal Behaviour, 25, 774-781.

Cook, A., Bamford, O.S., Freeman, J.D.B., & Teidemann, D.J. (1969). A study of the homing habit of the limpet. Animal Behaviour, 17, 330-339.

Courtillot, V., Hulot, G., Alexandrescu, M., le Mouël, J.L., & Kirschvink, J.L. (1997). Sensitivity and evolution of sea-turtle magnetoreception: Observations, modelling and constraints from geomagnetic secular variation. Terra Nova, 9, 203-207. 

Cramer, A.E., & Gallistel, C.R. (1997). Vervet monkeys as travelling salesmen. Nature, 387, 464.

Cristol, D.A., Reynolds, E.B., Leclerc, J.E., Donner, A.H., Farabaugh, C.S., & Ziegenfus, C.W.S. (2003). Migratory dark-eyed juncos, Junco hyemalis, have better spatial memory and denser hippocampal neurons than nonmigratory conspecifics. Animal Behaviour, 66, 317-328.

Crocq, C. (1978). Ecologie du Casse-noix (Nucifraga caryocatactes L.) dans les Alpes Francaises du sud: Ses relations avec L'Arolle (Pinus cembra L.). Unpublished PhD, L'Univerite d'Aix-Marseille, Marseille, France.

Crystal, J.D. & Shettleworth, S.J. (1994). Spatial list learning in black-capped chickadees. Animal Learning & Behavior, 22, 77-83.

Dabbs, J.M., Chang, E.L., Strong, R.A., & Milun, R. (1998). Spatial ability, navigation strategy, and geographic knowledge among men and women. Evolution and Human Behavior, 19, 89-98.

Dahl, D., & Winson, J. (1985). Action of norepinephrine in the dentate gyrus. I. Stimulation of locus coeruleus. Experimental Brain Research, 59, 491-496.

Dallal, N.L., & Meck, W.H. (1990). Hierarchical structures: Chunking by food type facilitates spatial memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 16, 69-84.

Dawkins, M.S., Guilford, T., Braithwaite, V.A., & Krebs, J.R. (1996). Discrimination and recognition of photographs of places by homing pigeons. Behavioural Processes, 36, 27-38.

Deutsch, J.A. (1960).  The structural basis of behaviour. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Deutschlander, M.E., Borland, S.C., & Phillips J.B. (1999). Extraocular magnetic compass in newts. Nature, 400, 324-325.

Devan, B.D., & White, N.M. (1999). Parallel information processing in the dorsal striatum: Relation to hippocampal function. Journal of Neuroscience, 19, 2789-2798.

deVega, M. (1995). Backward updating of mental models during continuous reading of narratives. Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 373-385.

Dickinson, A. (1980). Contemporary animal learning theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Diego-Rasilla, F.J., Luengo, R.M.,  & Phillips,  J.B. (2005). Magnetic compass mediates nocturnal homing by the alpine newt, Triturus alpestris.  Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 58, 361-365

DiGello, E., Brown, M.F., & Affuso, J. (2002). Negative information: Both presence and absence of spatial pattern elements guide rats' spatial choices. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9, 706-713.

Dijkstra, E.W. (1959). A note on two problems in connection with graphs. Numeriske Mathematik, 1, 269-271.

Diwadkar, V.A., & McNamara, T.P. (1997). Viewpoint dependence in scene recognition. Psychological Science, 8(4), 302-307.

Donnart, J.Y., & Meyer, J.A. (1996). Hierarchical-map building and self-positioning with MonaLysa. Adaptive Behavior, 5(1) 29-74.

Donoghue, J.P., & Parham, C. (1983). Afferent connections of the lateral agranular field of the rat motor cortex. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 217, 390-404.

Dudchenko, P. (2003). The head direction system and navigation. In K.J. Jeffery (Ed.), The neurobiology of spatial behaviour (pp. 173-186). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dudek, G., & Jenkin, M. (2000). Computational principles of mobile robotics. Cambridge University Press.

Duff, S.J., & Hampson, E. (2001). A sex difference on a novel spatial working memory task in humans. Brain and Cognition, 47, 470-493.

Eason. P.K., Cobbs, G.A., & Trinca, K.G. (1999).  The use of landmarks to define territorial boundaries. Animal Behaviour, 58(1), 85-91.

Easton, R.D., & Sholl, M.J. (1995). Object-array structure, frames of reference, and retrieval of spatial knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21(2), 483-500.

Egerton, S., Callaghan, V., & Chernett, P. (2000). A biologically inspired mapping model for autonomous mobile robots. In M. Mohammadin (Ed.), New frontiers in computational intelligence and its applications (pp. 20-29). Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Ehrlich, K., & Johnson-Laird, P.N. (1982). Spatial descriptions and referential continuity. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 21(3), 296-306.

Eichenbaum, H., & Cohen, N.J. (2001). From conditioning to conscious recollection: Memory systems of the brain. New York: Oxford University Press.

Eichenbaum, H., Kuperstein, M., Fagan, A., & Nagode, J. (1987). Cue-sampling and goal-approach correlates of hippocampal unit activity in rats performing an odor-discrimination task. Journal of Neuroscience, 7, 716-732.

Ekstrom, A.D., Kahana, M.J., Caplan, J.B., Fields, T.A., Isham, E.A., Newman, E.L., et al. (2003). Cellular networks underlying human spatial navigation. Nature, 425, 184-187.

Emlen, S.T. (1967). Migratory orientation in the Indigo Bunting, Passerina cyanea. Part II. Mechanisms of celestial orientation. Auk, 84, 463-489.

Emlen, S.T. (1970). Celestial rotation: Its importance in the development of migratory orientation. Science, 170, 1198-1201.

Emlen, S.T. (1975). Migration: Orientation and navigation. In D.S. Farner & J.R. King (Eds.), Avian biology (Vol. 5, pp. 129-219). New York: Academic Press. 

Epstein, R., DeYoe, E.A., Press, D.Z., Rosen, A.C., & Kanwisher, N. (2001). Neuropsychological evidence for a topographical learning mechanism in parahippocampal cortex. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 18, 481-508.

Epstein, R., Graham, K.S., & Downing, P.E. (2003). Viewpoint-specific scene representations in human parahippocampal cortex. Neuron, 37, 865-876.

Epstein, R., Harris, A., Stanley, D., & Kanwisher, N. (1999). The parahippocampal place area: Recognition, navigation, or encoding? Neuron, 23, 115-125.

Epstein, R., & Kanwisher, N. (1998). A cortical representation of the local visual environment. Nature, 392, 598-601.

Etienne, A.S., & Jeffery, K.J. (2004). Path integration in mammals. Hippocampus, 14(2), 180-192.

Etienne, A.S., Teroni, E., Hurni, C., & Portenier, V. (1990). The effect of a single light cue on homing behaviour of the golden hamster.  Animal Behaviour, 39, 17-41.

Farrell, M.J., & Robertson, I.H. (1998). Mental rotation and automatic updating of body-centered spatial relations. Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 24(1), 227-233.

Ferbinteanu, J., & Shapiro, M.L. (2003). Prospective and retrospective memory coding in the hippocampus. Neuron, 40, 1227-1239.

Fischer, J.H., Freake, M.J., Borland, S.C., & Phillips, J.B. (2001). Evidence for the use of a magnetic map by an amphibian. Animal Behavior, 62, 1-10. 

Fischer, J., Munro, U., & Phillips, J.B. (2003). Magnetic navigation by an avian migrant? In P. Berthold, E. Gwinner, & E. Sonnenschein (Eds.), Avian migration (pp. 423-432). Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg-New York.

Fitzgerald, T.D. (2003). Role of trail pheromone in foraging and processionary behaviour of pine processionary caterpillars Thaumetopoea pityocampa. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 29(3), 513-532.

Flaherty, A.W., & Graybiel, A.M. (1993). Two input systems for body representations in the primate striatal matrix: Experimental evidence in the squirrel monkey. Journal of Neuroscience, 13, 1120-1137.

Fleissner, G., Holtkamp-Rötzler, E., Hanzlik, M., Winklhofer, M., Fleissner, G., Petersen, N., & Wiltschko, W. (2003). Ultrastructural analysis of a putative magnetoreceptor in the beak of homing pigeons. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 458, 350-360. 

Floresco, S.B., Seamans, J.K., & Phillips, A.G. (1996). Differential effects of lidocaine infusions into the ventral CA1/subiculum or the nucleus accumbens on the acquisition and retention of spatial information. Behavioural Brain Research, 8, 163-171.

Foa, A., Bagnoli, P., & Giongo, F. (1986). Homing pigeons subjected to section of the anterior commissure can build up two olfactory maps in the deflector lofts.  Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 159, 465-472.

Fodor, J.A. (1983). The modularity of mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Foo, P., Wareen, W.H., Duchon, A., & Tarr, M.J. (2005). Do humans integrate routes into a cognitive map?  Map- versus landmark-based navigation of novel shortcuts. Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 31(2), 195-215.

Fountain, S.B., & Rowan, J.D. (1995). Coding for hierarchical versus linear pattern structure in rats and humans. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 21, 187-202.

Fox, S.E., & Ranck, J.B., Jr. (1981). Electrophysiological characteristics of hippocampal complex-spike cells and theta cells. Experimental Brain Research, 41, 399-410.

Freake, M.J., & Phillips, J.B. (2005). Light-dependent shift in bullfrog tadpole magnetic compass orientation: Evidence for a common magnetoreception mechanism in anuran and urodele amphibians. Ethology, 111, 241-254. 

Freeman, J.H., Jr., Cuppernell, C., Flannery, K., & Gabriel, M. (1996) Limbic thalamic, cingulate cortical and hippocampal neuronal correlates of discriminative approach learning in rabbits. Behavioural Brain Research, 80, 123-136.

Freeman, J.H., Jr., Weible, A., Rossi, J., & Gabriel, M. (1997). Lesions of the entorhinal cortex disrupt behavioral and neuronal responses to context change during extinction of discriminative avoidance behavior. Experimental Brain Research, 115, 445-457.

Freund, T.F., & Antal, M. (1988). GABA-containing neurons in the septum control inhibitory interneurons in the hippocampus. Nature, 336, 170-173.

Freund, T.F., & Buzsaki, G. (1996). Interneurons of the hippocampus. Hippocampus, 6, 347-470.

von Frisch, K. (1967). The dance language and orientation of bees. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Fritsch, D.S., Pizer, S.M., Morse, B.S., Eberly, D.H., & Liu, A. (1994). The multiscale medial axis and its applications in image registration.  Pattern Recognition Letters, 15, 445-452.

Gagliardo, A., Ioalé, P., & Bingman, V.P. (1999). Homing in pigeons: The role of the hippocampal formation in the representation of landmarks used for navigation. Journal of Neuroscience, 19, 311-315.

Gagliardo, A., Ioale, P., Odetti, F., Kahn, M.C., & Bingman, V.P. (2004). Hippocampal lesions do not dirupt navigational map retention in homing pigeons under conditions when amp acquisition is hippocampal dependent. Behavioural Brain Research, 153, 35-42.

Gagliardo, A., Mazzotto, M., & Bingman, V. (1997). Piriform cortex ablations block navigational map learning in homing pigeons. Behavioural Brain Research, 86, 143-148.

Gagliardo, A., Odetti, F., & Ioalé, P. (2001). Relevance of visual cues for orientation at familiar sites by homing pigeons: An experiment in a circular arena. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 268, 2065-2070.

Gagliardo, A., Odetti, F., Ioalé, P., Bingman, V.P., Tuttle, S., & Vallortigara, G. (2002). Bilateral participation of the hippocampus in familiar landmark navigation by homing pigeons. Behavioural Brain Research, 136, 201-209.

Gal, G., Joel, D., Gusak, O., Feldon, J., & Weiner, I. (1997). The effects of electrolytic lesion to the shell subterritory of the nucleus accumbens on delayed non-matching-to-sample and four-arm baited eight-arm radial-maze tasks. Behavioral Neuroscience, 111, 92-103.

Galea, L.A.M., Kavaliers, M., Ossenkopp, K.P., Innes, D., & Hargreaves, E.L. (1994a). Sexually dimorphic spatial learning varies seasonally in two populations of deer mice. Brain Research, 635, 18-26.

Galea, L.A.M., & McEwen, B.S. (1999). Sex and seasonal differences in the rate of cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of adult wild meadow voles. Neuroscience, 89, 955-964.

Galea, L.A.M., Saksida, L., Kavaliers, M., & Ossenkopp, K.P. (1994b). Naloxone facilitates spatial learning in a water-maze task in female, but not male, adult non-breeding meadow voles. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 47, 265-271.

Gallistel, C.R. (1990). The organization of learning. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press.

Ganzhorn, J.U. (1990). Towards the map of the homing pigeon. Animal Behaviour, 40, 65-78.

Ganzhorn, J.U. (1992). Geographical patterns in the initial orientation of homing pigeons in upstate New York. Animal Behavior, 44, 931-941.

Ganzhorn, J.U. (1995). Patterns of air pollution as model for the physical basis for olfactory navigation in pigeon homing. Journal of Ornithology, 136, 159-165.

Ganzhorn, J.U., & Schmidt-Koenig, K. (1990). Initial orientation of homing pigeons around Tübingen. In R. van der Elzen, K.L. Schuchmann, & K. Schmidt-Koenig (Eds.), Current topics in avian biology (pp. 305-309). Deutsche Ornithologen Gesselschaft, Bonn.

Garrison, J.S.E., & Gass, C.L. (1999). Response of a traplining hummingbird to changes in nectar availability. Behavioral Ecology, 10, 714-725.

Gass, C.L., & Garrison, J.S.E. (1999). Energy regulation by traplining hummingbirds. Functional Ecology, 13, 438-492.

Gattis, M. (2001). Spatial schemas and abstract thought. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Gauvain, M. (2001). Cultural tools, social interaction and the development of thinking. Human Development, 44, 126-143.

Gehlbach, F. R., Watkins, J. F.,  & Kroll, J. C. (1971).  Pheromone trail-following studies of typhlopid, leptotyphlopid and colubrid snakes. Behaviour, 40, 282-294.

Gemmell, C., & O'Mara, S.M. (1999). Medial prefrontal cortex lesions cause deficits in a variable-goal location task but not in object exploration. Behavioral Neuroscience, 113, 465-474.

Gentner, D., & Stevens, A.L. (1983). Mental models. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Gernsbacher, M.A. (1990). Language comprehension as structure building. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Gibson, B.M., & Shettleworth, S.J. (2003). Competition among spatial cues in a naturalistic food-carrying task. Learning & Behavior, 31, 143-159.

Gilmartin, P. (1986). Maps, mental imagery, and gender in the recall of geographic information. The American Cartographer, 13, 335-344.

Girvan, J.R. & Braithwaite, V.A. (1998). Population differences in spatial learning in three-spined sticklebacks. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 265, 913-918.

Girvan, J.R., & Braithwaite, V.A. (2000). Orientation behaviour in sticklebacks: Modified by experience or population specific? Behaviour, 137, 833-843.

Giuntoli, M., & Mewaldt, L.R. (1978). Stomach contents of Clark's nutcrackers collected in western Montana. Auk, 95, 595-598.

Givon, T. (1992). The grammar of referential coherence as mental processing instructions. Linguistics. Special topic: From grammar to discourse, 30(1), 5-55.

Glasgow, J., Narayanan, N.H., & Chandrasekaran, B. (Eds.). (1995). Diagrammatic reasoning:  Cognitive and computational perspectives. Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press.

Gold, P.E. (2003). Acetylcholine modulation of neural systems involved in learning and memory. Neurobiology of Learning & Memory, 80,194-210.

Golledge, R.G., & Spector, N.A. (1978). Comprehending the urban environment: Theory and practice. Geographical Analysis, 14, 305-325.

Golob, E.J., Stackman, R.W., Wong, A.C., & Taube, J.S. (2001). On the behavioral significance of head direction cells: Neural and behavioral dynamics during spatial memory tasks. Behavioral Neuroscience, 115, 285-304.

Gonor, J.J. (1967). Predator-prey reactions between two marine Prosobranch gastropods. The Veliger, 7, 228-232.

Goodyear, A.J., & Kamil, A.C. (2004). Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) and the effects of goal‑landmark distance on overshadowing. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 118, 258-264.

Gould, J.L. (1982). The map sense of pigeons. Nature, 296, 205-211. 

Gould, J.L. (1985). Are animal maps magnetic? In J.L Kirschvink, D.S. Jones, & B.J. McFadden (Eds), Magnetite biomineralization and magnetoreception in organisms: A new biomagnetism (pp. 257-268). New York and London: Plenum Press.

Gould-Beierle, K.L., & Kamil, A.C. (1996). The use of local and global cues by Clark's nutcrackers, Nucifraga columbiana. Animal Behaviour, 52, 519-528.

Gould-Beierle, K.L., & Kamil, A.C. (1998). Use of landmarks in three species of food-storing corvids. Ethology, 104, 361-378.

Gould-Beierle, K.L., & Kamil, A.C. (1999). The role of proximity in landmark use by Clark's nutcrackers. Animal Behaviour, 58, 477-488.

Gouteux, S., & Spelke, E.S. (2001). Children's use of geometry and landmarks to reorient in an open space. Cognition, 81, 119-148.

Gouteux, S., Thinus-Blanc, C., & Vauclair, J. (2001). Rhesus monkeys use geometric and non-geometric information during a reorientation task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130, 505-519.

Graham, M., Good, M.A., McGregor, A., & Pearce, J.M. (2006). Spatial learning based on the shape of the environment is influenced by properties of the objects forming the shape. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 32, 44-59.

Graham, S.M., Joshi, A., & Pizlo, Z. (2000). The travelling salesman problem: A hierarchical model. Memory and Cognition. 28(7), 1191-1204.

Granon, S., Save, E., Buhot, M.C., & Poucet, B. (1996). Effortful information processing in a spontaneous spatial situation by rats with medial prefrontal lesions. Behavioural Brain Research, 78, 147-154.

Grant, D., Anderson, O., & Twitty, V. (1968). Homing orientation by olfaction in newts Taricha rivularisScience, 160, 1354-1355.

Grant, K.A. (1966). A hypothesis concerning the prevalence of red coloration in California hummingbird flowers. American Naturalist, 100, 85-97.

Gray, E.R., Bloomfield, L.L., Ferrey, A., Spetch, M.L., & Sturdy, C.B. (2005). Spatial encoding in mountain chickadees: Features overshadow geometry. Biology Letters, 1, 314-317.

Griffin, D.R. (1952). Bird navigation. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 27, 359-400. 

van Groen, T., & Wyss, J.M. (1990). Connections of the retrosplenial granular a cortex in the rat. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 300, 593-606.

Guilford, T., Gagliardo, A., Chappell, J., Bonadonna, F., Burt, T., & Holland, R. (1998). Homing pigeons use olfactory cues for navigation in England. Journal of Experimental Biology, 201, 895-900. 

Guilford, T., Roberts, S., Biro, D., & Rezek, L. (2004). Positional entropy during pigeon homing II: Navigational interpretation of Bayesian latent state models. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 227, 25-38.

Güntürkün, O. (1997) Avian visual lateralization: A review. NeuroReport, 8(6), 3-11.

Gwinner, E., Wiltschko, W. (1978). Endogenously controlled changes in the migratory direction of garden warbler, Sylvia borin. Journal of Comparative Physiology, 125, 267-273. 

Hafting, T., Fyhn, M., Molden, S., Moser, M. B., & Moser, E. I. (2005). Microstructure of a spatial map in the entorhinal cortex. Nature, 436, 801-806.

Hakala, C. (1999). Accessibility of spatial information in a situation model. Discourse Processes, 27, 261-280.

Hampton, R.R., Healy, S.D., Shettleworth, S.J., & Kamil, A.C. (2002). 'Neuroecologists' are not made of straw. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6, 6-7.

Hampton, R.R., & Shettleworth, S.J. (1996a). Hippocampal lesions impair memory for location but not color in passerine birds. Behavioral Neuroscience, 110, 831-835.

Hampton, R.R., & Shettleworth, S.J. (1996b). Hippocampus and memory in a food-storing and in a nonstoring bird species. Behavioral Neuroscience, 110, 946-964.

Hartley, T., Burgess, N., Lever, C., Cacucci, F., & O’Keefe, J. (2000). Modeling place fields in terms of the cortical inputs to the hippocampus. Hippocampus, 10, 369-379.

Hartley, T., Maguire, E.A., Spiers, H.J., & Burgess, N. (2003). The well-worn route and the path less travelled: Distinct neural bases of route following and way finding in humans. Neuron, 37, 877-888.

Hartley, T., Trinkler, I., & Burgess, N. (2004). Geometric determinants of human spatial memory. Cognition, 94, 39-75.

Hartmann, G., & Wehner, R. (1995). The ant's path integration system: A neural architecture. Biological Cybernetics, 73, 483–493.

Harzi, M.M., & Jarrard, L.E. (1992). Effects of medial and lateral septal lesions on acquisition of a place and cue radial maze task. Behavioral Brain Research, 49, 159-165.

Hasselmo, M.E., Hay, J., Ilyn, M., & Gorchetchnikov, A. (2002). Neuromodulation, theta rhythm and rat spatial navigation. Neural Networks, 15, 689-707.

Hatfield, T., Han, J.S., Conley, M., Gallagher, M., & Holland, P. (1996). Neurotoxic lesions of basolateral, but not central, amygdala interfere with Pavlovian second-order conditioning and reinforcer devaluation effects. Journal of Neuroscience, 16, 5256-5265.

Haviland, S.E., & Clark, H.H. (1974). What's new? Acquiring new information as a process in comprehension. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 13(5), 512-521.

Hays, G.C., Åkesson, S., Broderick, A.C., Glen, F., Godley, B.J., Papi, F., & Luschi, P. (2003). Island-finding ability of marine turtles. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 270 (supplement), S5-S7.

Hayward, A., McGregor, A., Good, M.A., & Pearce, J.M. (2003). Absence of overshadowing and blocking between landmarks and geometric cues provided by the shape of a test arena. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 56B, 114-126.

Healy, S.D. (1998) Spatial representation in animals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Healy, S.D., Braham, S.R., & Braithwaite, V.A. (1999). Spatial working memory in rats: No differences between the sexes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 266, 2303-2308.

Healy, S.D., Clayton, N.S., & Krebs, J.R. (1994). Development of hippocampal specialization in 2 species of tit (Parus spp). Behavioural Brain Research, 61, 23-28.

Healy, S.D., & Hurly, T.A. (1995).  Spatial memory in rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus): A field test.  Animal Learning & Behavior, 23, 63-68.

Healy, S.D., & Hurly, T.A. (1998). Rufous hummingbirds' (Selasphorus rufus) memory for flowers: Patterns or actual spatial locations? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 24, 396-404.

Helbig, A.J. (1992). Ontogenetic stability of inherited migratory directions in a nocturnal bird migrant: Comparison between the first and second year of life. Ecology, Ethology, Evolution, 4, 375-388. 

Helbig, A.J. (1996). Genetic basis, mode of inheritance and evolutionary changes of migratory directions in paleaarctic warblers (Aves: Sylviidae). Journal of Experimental Biology, 199(1), 49-55. 

Hermer, L., & Spelke, E. (1994). A geometric process for spatial representation in young children. Nature, 370, 57-59.

Hermer, L., & Spelke, E. (1996). Modularity and development: The case of spatial reorientation. Cognition, 61, 195-232.

Hermer-Vazquez, L., Spelke, E., & Katsnelson, A. (1999). Source of flexibility in human cognition: Dual task studies of space and language. Cognitive Psychology, 39, 3-36.

Hermer-Vazquez, L., & Spelke, E.S. (1994).  A geometric process for spatial reorientation in young children. Nature, 370, 57-59.

Hermer-Vazquez, L., & Spelke, E.S. (1996).  Modularity and development: The case of spatial reorientation. Cognition, 61, 195-232.

Hill, A.J., & Best, P.J. (1981). Effects of deafness and blindness on the spatial correlates of hippocampal unit activity in the rat. Experimental Neurology, 74, 204-217.

Hilton, S.C., & Krebs, J. R. (1990). Spatial memory of four species of Parus: Performance in an open-field analogue of a radial maze. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 42B, 345-368.

Hirtle, S.C. (1995). Representational structures for cognitive space: Trees, ordered trees and semi-lattices. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 988, 327-340.

Hirtle, S.C., & Jonides, J. (1985). Evidence of hierarchies in cognitive maps. Memory and Cognition, 13(3), 208-217.

Hodgson, Z. & Healy, S. D. (2005). Preference for spatial cues in a non-storing songbird species. Animal Cognition, 8, 211-213.

Holding, C.S. (1994). Further evidence for the hierarchical representation of spatial information. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 14(2), 137-147.

Hoffman, K. (1954). Versuche zu der im richtungsfinden der Vögel enthaltenen zeitschätzung.  Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 11, 453 - 475.

Hollup, S.A., Molden, S., Donnett, J.G., Moser, M.B., & Moser, E.I. (2001). Accumulation of hippocampal place fields at the goal location in an annular water maze task. Journal of Neuroscience, 21, 1635-1644.

Holt, W., Maren, S. (1999). Muscimol inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus impairs contextual retrieval of fear memory. Journal of Neuroscience, 19, 9054-9062.

Hough II, G.E., & Bingman, V.P. (2004). Spatial response properties of homing pigeon hippocampal neurons: Correlations with goal locations, movement between goals, and environmental context in a radial-arm arena. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 190, 1047-1062.

Houk, J.C. (1995). Information processing in modular circuits linking basal ganglia and cerebral cortex. In J.C Houk, J.L. Davis, & D.G. Beiser (Eds.), Models of information processing in the basal ganglia (pp. 3-10). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Hurly, T.A. & Healy, S.D. (1996). Memory for flowers in rufous hummingbirds: Location or local visual cues? Animal Behaviour, 51, 1149-1157.

Hurly, T.A. & Healy, S.D. (2002). Cue learning by rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 28, 209-223.

Hutchison, B.A., & Hicks, D.D. (Eds.). (1985). The Forest-atmosphere interaction:  Proceedings of the Forest Environmental Measurements Conference, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel.

Huttenlocher, J., & Vasilyeva, M. (2003). How toddlers represent enclosed spaces. Cognitive Science, 27, 749-766.

Ikonen, S., McMahan, R., Gallagher, M., Eichenbaum, H., & Tanila, H. (2002). Cholinergic system regulation of spatial representation by the hippocampus. Hippocampus, 12, 386-397.

Ioalé, P. (1984).  Magnets and pigeon orientation. Monitore Zoologico Italiano (N.S.), 18, 347-358.

Ioalé, P., Gagliardo, A., & Bingman, V.P. (2000). Hippocampal participation in navigational map learning in young homing pigeons is dependent on training experience. European Journal of Neuroscience, 12, 742-750.

Ioalé, P., Papi, F., Fiaschi, V., & Baldaccini, N.E. (1978). Pigeon navigation: effects upon homing behaviour by reversing wind direction at the loft. Journal of Comparative Physiology, 128, 285-295.

Jackendoff, R., & Landau, B. (1991). Spatial language and spatial cognition. In D. J. Napoli & J. A. Kegl (Eds.), Bridges between psychology and linguistics:  A swarthmore festschrift for lila gleitman (pp. 145-169). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Jacobs, L.F., & Schenk, F. (2003). Unpacking the cognitive map: The parallel map theory of hippocampal function. Psychological Review, 110, 285-315.

Jackson, D.E., Holcombe, M., & Ratnieks, F.L.W. (2004). Trail geometry gives polarity to ant foraging networks. Nature, 432, 907-909.

Jackson, R.R., & Wilcox, R.S. (1993). Observations in nature of detouring behaviour by Portia fimbriata, a web-invading agressive mimic jumping spider from Queensland. Journal of Zoology, London, 230, 135-139.

Jakab, R.L., & Leranth, C. (1995). Septum. In G. Paxinos (Ed.), The rat nervous system (2nd ed., pp. 405-442). Australia: Academic.

James, T.W., & Kimura, D. (1997). Sex differences in remembering the locations of objects in an array: Location-shifts versus location-exchanges. Evolution and Human Behavior, 18, 155-163.

Jay, T.M., & Witter, M.P. (1991). Distribution of hippocampal CA1 and subicular efferents in the prefrontal cortex of the rat studied by means of anterograde transport of Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 313, 574-586.

Jeffery, K.J. (Ed.) (2003). The neurobiology of spatial behaviour. Oxford: Oxford University Press..

Johnson, H.C. (1900). The breeding home of the Clark's nutcracker. Condor, 2, 49-52.

Johnson, L.S., Marzluff, J.M., & Balda, R.P. (1987). Handling of pinyon pine seeds by Clark's nutcracker. Condor, 89, 117-125.

Johnson-Laird, P.N. (1983). Mental models:  Toward a cognitive science of language, inference, and consciousness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Joly, P., & Miaud, C. (1989). Fidelity to the breeding site in the alpine newt Triturus alpestris. Behavioural Processes, 19, 47-56

Joly, P., & Miaud, C. (1993). How does a newt finds its pond?  The role of chemical cues in migrating newts. Ethology, Ecology, Evolution, 5, 447-455.

Jones, C.M., Braithwaite, V.A., & Healy, S.D. (2003). The evolution of sex differences in spatial ability. Behavioral Neuroscience, 117, 403-411.

Jones, J.E., & Kamil, A.C. (2001). The use of relative and absolute bearings by Clark's nutcrackers, Nucifraga columbianaAnimal Learning & Behavior, 29, 120-132.

Jung, M.W., Qin, Y., McNaughton, B.L., Barnes, C.A. (1998). Firing characteristics of deep layer neurons in prefrontal cortex in rats performing spatial working memory tasks. Cerebral Cortex, 8, 437-450.

Kahn, M.C., Bingman, V.P. (2004). Lateralization of spatial learning in the avian hippocampal formation. Behavioral Neuroscience, 118, 333-344.

Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1982). The simulation heuristic. In D. Kahneman, P. Slovic, & A. Tversky (Eds.), Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases (pp. 201-208). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kamil, A.C. (1988). A synthetic approach to the study of animal intelligence. In D.W. Leger (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation: Comparative perspectives in modern psychology (Vol. 35, pp. 230-257). Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.

Kamil, A.C., & Balda, R.P. (1990). Spatial memory in seed caching corvids. In G.H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 26, pp. 1-25). New York: Academic Press.

Kamil, A.C., & Cheng, K. (2001). Way-finding and landmarks: The multiple-bearings hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Biology, 204, 103-113.

Kamil, A.C., & Jones, J.E. (1997). Clark's nutcrackers learn geometric relationships among landmarks. Nature, 390, 276‑279.

Kamil, A.C. & Jones, J.E. (1997).  The seed-storing corvid Clark's nutcracker learns geometric relationships among landmarks. Nature, 390, 276-279.

Kamil, A.C., & Jones, J.E. (2000). Geometric rule learning by Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 26, 439-453.

Kamil, A.C., Goodyear, A.J., & Cheng, K. (2001). The use of landmarks by Clark's nutcrackers: First tests of a new model. Journal of Navigation, 54, 429-435.

Kamil, A.C., Balda, R.P., & Good, S. (1999). Patterns of movement and orientation during caching and recovery by Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana). Animal Behaviour, 57, 1327-1335.

Kamil, A.C., Balda, R.P., & Olson, D.J. (1994). Performance of four seed-caching corvid species in the radial maze analog. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 108, 385-393.

Kang, E., & Gabriel, M. (1998). Hippocampal modulation of cingulo-thalamic neuronal activity and discriminative avoidance learning in rabbits. Hippocampus, 8, 491-510.

Kanit, L., Taskiran, D., Furedy, J. J., Kulali, B., McDonald, R. & Pogun, S. (1998). Nicotine interacts with sex in affecting rat choice between "look-out" and "navigational" cognitive styles in the Morris water maze place learning task. Brain Research Bulletin, 46, 441-445.

Kanit, L., Taskiran, D., Yilmaz, O. A., Balkan, B., Demirgoren, S., Furedy, J.J., & Pogun, S. (2000). Sexually dimorphic cognitive style in rats emerges after puberty. Brain Research Bulletin, 52, 243-248.

Kapp, B.S., Frysinger, R.C., Gallagher, M., & Haselton, J.R. (1979). Amygdala central nucleus lesions: Effect on heart rate conditioning in the rabbit. Physiology and Behavior, 23, 1109-1117.

Kavaliers, M., & Galea, L.A.M. (1995). Sex differences in the expression and antagonism of swim stress-induced analgesia in deer mice vary with the breeding season. Pain, 63, 327-334.

Kavaliers, M., Ossenkopp, K.P., Prato, F.S., Innes, D.G.L., Galea, L.A.M., Kinsella, D.M., & Perrot-Sinal, T.S. (1996). Spatial learning in deer mice: Sex differences and the effects of endogenous opioids and 60 Hz magnetic fields. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 179, 715-724.

Keiser, J.T., Ziegenfus, C.W.S. & Cristol, D.A. (2005). Homing success of migrant versus nonmigrant dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). Auk, 122, 608-617.

Keith, J.R., & McVety, K.M. (1988). Latent place learning in a novel environment and the influences of prior training in rats.  Psychobiology, 16 (2), 146-151.

Kelly, D., & Spetch, M.L. (2001). Pigeons encode relative geometry. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 27, 417-422.

Kelly, D., & Spetch, M.L. (2004a). Reorientation in a two-dimensional environment I: Do adults encode the featural and geometric properties of a two-dimensional schematic of a room? Journal of Comparative Psychology, 118, 82-94.

Kelly, D., & Spetch, M.L. (2004b). Reorientation in a two-dimensional environment: II. Do pigeons (Columba livia) encode the featural and geometric properties of a two-dimensional schematic of a room?  Journal of Comparative Psychology, 118, 384-395.

Kelly, D., Spetch, M.L., & Heth, C.D. (1998). Pigeon’s encoding of geometric and featural properties of a spatial environment. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 112, 259-269.

Kendeou, P., Rapp, D.N., & van den Broek, P. (2004). The influence of readers' prior knowledge on text comprehension and learning from text. In R. Nata (Ed.), Progress in education (pp. 189-209). New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Kendeou, P., & van den Broek, P. (2005). The effects of reader's misconceptions on comprehension of scientific text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 235-245.

Kennedy, P. J., & Shapiro, M. L., (2004). Retrieving memories via internal context requires the hippocampus. Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 6979-6985.

Kesner, R.P., & Williams, J.M. (1995). Memory for magnitude of reinforcement: Dissociation between the amygdala and hippocampus. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 64, 237-244.

Kiepenheuer, J. (1978).  Pigeon homing: A repetition of the deflector loft experiment. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 3, 393-395.

Kiepenheuer, J. (1979). Pigeon homing: Deprivation of olfactory information does not affect the deflector loft effect. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 6, 11-22.

Kiepenheuer, J. (1982). Pigeon orientation: A preliminary evaluation of factors involved or not involved in the deflector loft effect. In F. Papi & H.G. Wallraff (Eds.), Avian navigation (pp. 203-210). Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.

Kiepenheuer, J. (1985). Can pigeons be fooled about the actual release site position by presenting them information from another site. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 18, 75-82.

Kim, J.J., & Fanselow, M.S. (1992). Modality-specific retrograde amnesia of fear. Science, 256, 675-677.

Kintsch, W., & van Dijk, T.A. (1978). Toward a model of text comprehension and production. Psychological Review, 85(5), 363-394.

Knierim, J.J., Kudrimoti, H.S., & McNaughton, B.L. (1998) Interactions between idiothetic cues and external landmarks in the control of place cells and head direction cells. Journal of Neurophysiology, 80, 425-446.

Kuipers, B. (1978). Modelling spatial knowledge. Cognitive Science, 2, 129-153.

Kobayashi, T., Tran, A.H., Nishijo, H., Ono, T., & Matsumoto, G. (2003). Contribution of hippocampal place cell activity to learning and formation of goal-directed navigation in rats. Neuroscience, 117, 1025-1035.

Kohonen, T. (1977). Associative memory. Berlin, Germany: Springer Verlag.

Kramer, G. (1952). Experiments on bird orientation. Ibis, 94, 265 - 285.

Kramer, G. (1959). Recent experiment on bird orientation. Ibis, 101, 399 - 416.

Krebs, J.R., Healy, S.D., & Shettleworth, S.J. (1990). Spatial memory of Paridae: Comparison of a storing and a non-storing species, the coal tit Parus ater, and the great tit, P.major. Animal Behaviour, 39, 1127-1137.

Krebs, J.R., Sherry, D.F., Healy, S.D., Perry, V.H., & Vaccarino, A.L. (1989). Hippocampal specialization of food-storing birds. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 86, 1388-1392.

Krushinskaya, N. (1966). Some complex forms of feeding behavior of nutcracker Nucifraga caryocatactes, after removal of old cortex. Zhurnal Evolyutsionnoi Biokhimii i Fiziologii, 563-568. Translated summary at:

Kubie, J.L., & Muller, R.U. (1991). Multiple representations in the hippocampus. Hippocampus, 1, 240-242.

Kuipers, B. (2000). The spatial semantic hierarchy. Artificial Intelligence, 119, 191-233.

LaManna, J.R., & Eason, P.K. (2003).  Effects of landmarks on territorial establishment. Animal Behaviour, 65, 471-478.

Landau, B., & Jackendoff, R. (1993). "What" and "where" in spatial language and spatial cognition. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 16(2), 217-264.

Lanner, R.M. (1981).The pinyon pine: A natural and cultural history. Reno, Nevada: University of Nevada Press.

Latombe, J.C. (1991). Robot motion planning, Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Lavoie, A.M., & Mizumori, S.J.Y. (1994). Spatial, movement- and reward-sensitive discharge by medial ventral striatum neurons of rats. Brain Research, 638, 157-168.

Learmonth, A.E., Nadel, L., & Newcombe, N.S. (2002). Children’s use of landmarks: Implications for modularity theory. Psychological Science, 13, 337-341.

Learmonth, A.E., Newcombe, N.S., & Huttenlocher, J. (2001). Toddlers’ use of metric information and landmarks to reorient. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 80, 225-244.

Lebowitz, B.K., & Brown, M.F. (1999). Sex differences in spatial search and pattern learning in the rat. Psychobiology, 27, 364-371.

LeDoux, J.E., Cicchetti, P., Xagoraris, A., & Romanski, L.M. (1990). The lateral amygdaloid nucleus: Sensory interface of the amygdala in fear conditioning. Journal of Neuroscience, 10, 1062-1069.

Leiser, D., & Zilbershatz, A. (1989). The traveller: A computational model of spatial network learning. Environment and Behavior, 21, 435-463.

Lenck-Santini, P.P., Save, E., & Poucet, B. (2001). Evidence for a relationship between place-cell spatial firing and spatial memory performance. Hippocampus, 11, 377-390.

Leutgeb, S., & Mizumori, S.J.Y. (1999). Excitotoxic septal lesions result in spatial memory deficits and altered flexibility of hippocampal single-unit representations. Journal of Neuroscience, 19, 6661-6672.

Leutgeb, S., Ragozzino, K.E., & Mizumori, S.J.Y. (2000). Convergence of head direction and place information in the CA1 region of hippocampus. Neuroscience, 100, 11-19.

Levelt, W.J.M. (1989). Speaking:  From intention to articulation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Lever, C., Wills, T., Caccucci, F., Burgess, N., & O’Keefe, J. (2002). Long term plasticity in hippocampal place-cell representation of environmental geometry. Nature, 416, 90-94.

Leyton, M. (1992). Symmetry, causality, mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Ligon, J.D. (1978). Reproductive interdependence on the pinyon jay and pinyon pines. Ecological Monographs, 48, 111-126.

Ligon, J.D., & Martin, D.J. (1974). Pinyon seeds assessment by the pinyon jay, Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus. Animal Behaviour, 22, 421-429.

Linde, C., & Labov, W. (1975). Spatial networks as a site for the study of language and thought. Language, 51(4), 924-939.

Lipp, H-P, Vyssotski, A.L., Wolfer, D.P., Renaudineau, S., Savini, M., Tröster, G., & Dell’Omo, G. (2004). Pigeon homing along highways and exits. Current Biology, 14, 1239-1249.

Lock, A., & Collett, T.S. (1979).  A toad's devious approach to prey: A study of some complex uses of depth vision.  Journal of Comparative Physiology, 131, 179-189.

Lohmann, K.J., & Lohmann, C.M.F. (1996). Orientation and open-sea navigation in sea turtles. Journal of Experimental Biology, 199, 73-81. 

Lohmann, K.J., Lohmann, C.M.F., Ehrhart, L.M., Bagley, D.A., & Swing, T. (2004). Animal behaviour: Geomagnetic map used in sea-turtle navigation . Nature, 428, 909-910.

Lorincz, A., & Buzsaki, G. (2000). Two-phase computational model training long-term memories in the entorhinal-hippocampal region. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 911, 83-111.

Maaswinkel, H., Jarrard, L.E., & Whishaw, I.Q. (1999). Hippocampectomized rats are impaired in homing by path integration. Hippocampus, 9, 553-561.

MacEachren, A.M. (1994). Some truth with maps:  A primer on symbolization and design. Washington, D.C.: Assocation of American Geographers.

MacEachren, A.M. (1995). How maps work:  Representation, visualization, and design. New York: Guilford Press.

MacFadden, A., Elias, L., & Saucier, D. (2003).Males and females scan maps similarly, but give directions differently. Brain and Cognition, 53, 297-300.

Mackintosh, J.H. (1973).  Factors affecting the recognition of territory boundaries by mice (Mus musculus).  Animal Behaviour, 21, 464-470.

Macphail, E.M., & Bolhuis, J.J. (2001). The evolution of intelligence: Adaptive specializations versus general process. Biological Reviews, 76, 341-364.

Macuda, T., & Roberts, W.A. (1995). Further evidence for hierarchical chunking in rat spatial memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 21, 20-32.

Maguire, E.A., Burgess, N., Donnett, J.G., Frackowiak, R.S.J., Frith, C.D., & O’Keefe, J. (1998). Knowing where and getting there: A human navigation network. Science, 280, 921-924.

Maguire, E.A., Burgess, N., & O’Keefe, J. (1999). Human spatial navigation: Cognitive maps, sexual dimorphism, and neural substrates. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 9, 171-177.

Maguire, E.A., Frith, C.D., Burgess, N., Donnett, J.G., & O’Keefe, J. (1998). Knowing where things are: Parahippocampal involvement in encoding object locations in virtual large-scale space. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 10, 61-76.

Maren, S. (2001). Neurobiology of Pavlovian fear conditioning. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 2, 897-931.

Margules, J., & Gallistel, C.R. (1988). Heading in the rat: Determination by environmental shape. Animal Learning & Behavior, 16, 404-410.

Markus, E.J., Barnes, C.A., McNaughton, B.L., Gladden, V.L., & Skaggs, W.E. (1994). Spatial information content and reliability of hippocampal CA1 neurons: Effects of visual input. Hippocampus, 4, 410-421.

Markus, E.J., Qin, Y.L., Leonard, B., Skaggs, W.E., McNaughton, B.L., & Barnes, C.A. (1995). Interactions between location and task affect the spatial and directional firing of hippocampal neurons. Journal of Neuroscience, 15, 7079-7094.

Marr, D. (1982). Vision. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Marzluff, J.M., & Balda, R.P. (1992). The Pinyon jay: Behavioral ecology of a colonial and cooperative corvid. London, U.K.: T. & A.D. Poyser.

Mataric, M.J. (1991). Navigating with a rat brain: A neurobiologically-inspired model of robot spatial representation. In From Animals to animats (Vol. 1, pp. 169-175). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Matthews, G.V.T. (1963). The orientation of pigeons as affected by the learning of landmarks and by the distance of displacement. Animal Behaviour, 11, 310-317. 

May, M. (2004). Imaginal perspective switches in remembered environments:  Transformation versus interference accounts. Cognitive Psychology, 48(2), 163-206.

Mayer, R.E. (2001). Multimedia learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Mayer, R.E. (2003). The promise of multimedia learning: Using the same instruction design methods across different media. Learning and Instruction, 13(2), 125-139.

Mayer, R.E., Heiser, J., & Lonn, S. (2001). Cognitive constraints on multimedia learning: When presenting more material results in less understanding. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(1), 187-198.

Mayer, R.E., & Sims, V.K. (1994). For whom is a picture worth a thousand words? Extensions of a dual-coding theory of multimedia learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86(3), 389-401.

McBurney, D.H., Gaulin, S.J.C., Devineni, T. & Adams, C. (1997). Superior spatial memory of women: Stronger evidence for the gathering hypothesis. Evolution and Human Behavior, 18, 165-174.

McDonald, R.J., White, N.M. (1993). A triple dissociation of memory systems: Hippocampus, amygdala, and dorsal striatum. Behavioral Neuroscience, 107, 3-22.

McGeorge, A.J., & Faull, R.L. (1989). The organization of the projection from the cerebral cortex to the striatum in the rat. Neuroscience, 29, 503-537.

McGregor, A., Good, M.A. & Pearce, J.M. (2004). Absence of an interaction between navigational strategies based on local and distal landmarks. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 30, 34-44.

McGregor, A. & Healy, S.D. (1999). Spatial accuracy in food-storing and nonstoring birds. Animal Behaviour, 58, 727-734.

McGregor, A., Jones, P.M., Good, M.A., & Pearce, J.M. (2006). Further evidence that rats rely on local rather than global spatial information to locate a hidden goal: Reply to Cheng and Gallistel (2005). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 32, 314-321.

McNamara, T.P., Hardy, J.K., & Hirtle, S.C. (1989). Subjective hierarchies in spatial memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15, 211-227.

McNamara, T.P., Rump, B., & Werner, S. (2003). Egocentric and geocentric frames of reference in memory of large-scale space. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 10(3), 589-595.

McNamara, T. P., & Shelton, A. L. (2003). Cognitive maps and the hippocampus. Trends in Cognitive Science, 7(8), 333-335.

McNaughton, B.L., Barnes, C.A., Gerrard, J.L., Gothard, K., Jung, M.W., Knierim, J.J., Kudrimoti, H., Qin, Y., Skaggs, W.E., Suster, M., & Weaver, K.L. (1996). Deciphering the hippocampal polyglot: The hippocampus as a path integration system. Journal of Experimental Biology, 199, 173-185.

McNaughton, B.L., Barnes, C.A., & O'Keefe, J. (1983). The contributions of position, direction, and velocity to single unit activity in the hippocampus of freely-moving rats. Experimental Brain Research, 52, 41-49.

Meck, W.H., & Williams C.L. (1997). Perinatal choline supplementation increases the threshold for chunking in spatial memory, Neuroreport, 8(14), 3053-3059.

Mehta, M.R., Barnes, C.A., & McNaughton, B.L. (1997). Experience-dependent, asymmetric expansion of hippocampal place fields. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 94, 8918-8921.

Merriam, C.H. (1890). Results of a biological survey of the San Francisco Mountain region and desert of the Little Colorado, Arizona. In North American Fauna (No.3, I-vii, pp.1-136).U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Miller, G.A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63, 81-97.

Miller, G.A., Galanter, E., & Pribram, K.H. (1960). Plans and the structure of behavior. New York: Holt.

Miller, G.A., & Johnson-Laird, P.N. (1976). Language and perception. Oxford, England: Harvard University Press.

Miller, R.S., Tamm, S., Sutherland, G.D., & Gass, C.L. (1985). Cues for orientation in hummingbird foraging: Color and position. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 63, 18-21.

Miller, V.M., & Best, P.J. (1980). Spatial correlates of hippocampal unit activity are altered by lesions of the fornix and entorhinal cortex. Brain Research, 194, 311-323.

Mittelstaedt, H. (2000).  Triple-loop model of path control by head direction and place cells. Biological Cybernetics, 83, 261-270.

Mittelstaedt, M.K., & Mittelstaedt, H. (1982). Homing by path integration. In F. Papi & H.G. Wallraff (Eds.), Avian navigation (pp. 290-297). Berlin, Germany: Springer Verlag.

Mizumori, S.J.Y., Canfield, J.G., & Yeshenko, O. (2005). Parallel and inter-related neural systems underlying adaptive navigation. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 45, 547-554.

Mizumori, S.J.Y., Cooper, B.G., Leutgeb, S., & Pratt, W.E. (2000a). A neural systems analysis of adaptive navigation. Molecular Neurobiology, 21, 57-82.

Mizumori, S.J.Y., McNaughton, B.L., & Barnes, C.A. (1989a). A comparison of supramammillary and medial septal influences on hippocampal field potentials and single-unit activity. Journal of Neurophysiology, 61, 15-31.

Mizumori, S.J.Y., McNaughton, B.L., Barnes, C.A., & Fox, K.B. (1989b). Preserved spatial coding in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells during reversible suppression of CA3c output: Evidence for pattern completion in hippocampus. Journal of Neuroscience, 9, 3915-3928.

Mizumori, S.J.Y., Pratt, W.E., Cooper, B.G., & Guazzelli, A. (2002). The behavioral implementation of hippocampal processing. In P.E. Sharp (Ed.), The neural basis of navigation: Evidence from single cell recording (pp. 197-216). Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Mizumori, S.J.Y., Pratt, W.E., & Ragozzino, K.E. (1999a). Function of the nucleus accumbens within the context of the larger striatal system. Psychobiology, 27, 214-224

Mizumori, S.J.Y., Puryear, C.M., Gill, K.M., & Guazzelli, A. (2004a). Head direction codes in hippocampal afferent and efferent systems: What functions do they serve? In S.L. Wiener & J.S. Taube (Eds.), Head direction cells and the neural mechanisms underlying directional orientation. Boston, MA: MIT Press.

Mizumori, S.J.Y., Ragozzino, K.E., & Cooper, B.G. (2000b). Location and head direction representation in the dorsal striatum of rats. Psychobiology, 28, 441-462.

Mizumori, S.J.Y., Ragozzino, K.E., Cooper, B.G., & Leutgeb, S. (1999b). Hippocampal representational organization and spatial context. Hippocampus, 9, 444-451.

Mizumori, S.J.Y, Ward, K.E., & Lavoie, A.M. (1992). Medial septal modulation of entorhinal single unit activity in anesthetized and freely moving rats. Brain Research, 570, 188-197.

Mizumori, S.J.Y., Williams, J.D. (1993). Directionally selective mnemonic properties of neurons in the lateral dorsal nucleus of the thalamus of rats. Journal of Neuroscience, 13, 4015-4028.

Mizumori, S.J.Y., Yeshenko, O., Gill, K.M., & Davis, D. (2004b). Parallel processing across neural systems: Implications for a multiple memory systems hypothesis. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 82, 278-298

Moffat, S.D., Hampson, E. & Hatzipantelis, M. (1998). Navigation in a "virtual" maze: Sex differences and correlation with psychometric measures of spatial ability in humans. Evolution and Human Behavior, 19, 73-87.

Montello, D.R., Lovelace, K., Golledge, R.G., & Self, C. (1999). Sex-related differences and similarities in geographic and environmental spatial abilities. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 89, 515-534.

de los Monteros, A.E., & Cracraft, L. (1997). Intergeneric relationships of the New World jays inferred from cytochrome b gene sequences. Condor, 99, 490-502.

Moore, B.R. (1980). Is the homing pigeon's mag geomagnetic? Nature, 285, 69-70. 

Moore, F.R. (1987). Sunset and the orientation behavior of migratory birds. Biological Reviews, 62, 65-86. 

Mora, C.V., Davidson, M., Wild, J.M., & Walker, M.M. (2004).  Magnetoreception and its trigeminal mediation in the homing pigeon. Nature, 432,508-511.

Morris, R.G.M. (1981).  Spatial localisation does not require the presence of local cues.  Learning and Motivation, 12, 239-260.

Morrow, D.G. (1994). Spatial models created from text. In H. van Oostendorp & R. A. Zwaan (Eds.), Naturalistic text comprehension (pp. 57-78). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Morrow, D.G., Bower, G.H., & Greenspan, S.L. (1989). Updating situation models during narrative comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language, 28, 292-312.

Morrow, D.G., Greenspan, S.L., & Bower, G.H. (1987). Accessibility and situation model narrative comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language, 26, 165-187.

Mou, W., & McNamara, T.P. (2002). Intrinsic frames of reference in spatial memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 28(1), 162-170.

Mouritsen, H. (2003). Spatiotemporal orientation strategies of long-distance migrants. In P. Berthold, E. Gwinner, & E. Sonnenschein (Eds.), Avian Migration (pp. 493-513). Berlin: Springer Verlag.

Mouritsen, H., & Frost, B.J. (2002). Virtual migration in tethered flying monarch butterflies reveals their orientation mechanisms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99, 10162-10166.

Muheim, R., Bäckman, J., & Åkesson, S. (2002). Magnetic compass orientation in European robins is dependent on both wavelength and intensity of light. Journal of Experimental Biology, 205(24), 3845-3856.

Muheim, R., Moore, F.R., & Phillips, J.B. (2006). Calibration of magnetic and celestial compass cues in migratory birds- a review of cue-conflict experiments. Journal of Experimental Biology, 209, 2-17.

Muheim, R., Phillips, J.B., & Akesson, S. (2006). Polarized light cues underlie compass calibration in migratory songbird. Science, 313, 837-839.

Müller, M., & Wehner, R. (1988). Path integration in desert ants, Cataglyphis fortis Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 85, 5287-5290.

Muller, R.U., & Kubie, J.L. (1987). The effects of changes in the environment on the spatial firing of hippocampal complex-spike cells. Journal of Neuroscience, 7, 1951-1968.

Muller, R.U., Kubie, J.L., & Saypoff, R. (1991). The hippocampus as a cognitive graph (abridged version). Hippocampus, 1, 243-246.

Muller, R.U., & Stead, M. (1996). Hippocampal place cells connected by Hebbian synapses can solve spatial problems. Hippocampus, 6, 709-719.

Muller, R.U., Stead. M., & Pach, J. (1996).  The hippocampus as a cognitive graph. Journal of General Physiology, 107, 663-694.

Munro, U., Munro, J.A., & Phillips, J.B. (1997). Evidence for a magnetite-based navigational 'map' in birds. Naturwissenschaften, 84, 26-28. 

Munro, U., Munro, J.A., Phillips, J.B., & Wiltschko, W. (1997). Effect of wavelength of light and pulse magnetization on different magnetoreception systems in a migratory bird. Australian Journal of Zoology, 45, 189-198. 

Myers, C.E., & Gluck, M. (1994). Context, conditioning, and hippocampal representation in animal learning. Behavioral Neuroscience, 108, 835-847.

Nadel, L., Willner, J., & Kurz, E.M. (1985). Cognitive maps and environmental context. In P. Balsam & A. Tomie (Eds.), Context and Learning (pp. 385-406). Hillside, NJ: Erlbaum.

Nehmzow, U. (1995). Animal and robot navigation. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 15, 71-81.

Nevitt, G.A., Reid, K., & Trathan, P. (2004). Testing olfactory foraging strategies in an Antarctic seabird assemblage. Journal of Experimental Biology, 207, 3537-3544.

Newcombe, N.S. (2002). The nativist-empiricist controversy in the context of recent research on spatial and quantitative development. Psychological Science, 13, 395-401.

Newcombe, N.S., & Sluzenski, J. (2004). Knowing where things are in the second year of life: Implications for hippocampal development. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience.  Special Issue on Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 16(8), 1443-1451.

Niizuma, M., Kawano, Y., Tomizawa, M., Sugiyama, M., & Degawa, S. (1992). Flexible control of autonomous vehicle utilizing hierarchical map and planning, Proceedings of the IMACS/SICE International Symposium on Robotics, Mechatronics and Manufacturing Systems, Japan.

Nolfi, S. (2002). Power and limits of reactive agents. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 42, 119-145.

Odling-Smee, L., & Braithwaite, V. A. (2003). The influence of habitat stability on landmark use during spatial learning in the three-spined stickleback. Animal Behaviour, 65, 701-707.

O‘Keefe, J. (1976).  Place units in the hippocampus of the freely moving rat.  Experimental Neurology, 51, 78-109.

O’Keefe, J. (1996). The spatial prepositions in English, vector grammar, and the cognitive map theory. In L. Bloom, M.A. Peterson, L. Nadel, & M.F. Garrett (Eds.), Language and space (pp. 277-316). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

O'Keefe, J., & Burgess, N. (1996). Geometric determinants of the place fields of hippocampal neurons.  Nature, 381, 425-428.

O’Keefe, J., Burgess, N., Donnett, J.G., Jeffery, K.J., & Maguire, E.A. (1999). Place cells, navigational accuracy, and the human hippocampus. In G.W. Humphreys, J. Duncan, & A. Treisman (Eds.), Attention, space, and action: Studies in cognitive neuroscience (pp. 153-164). Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press.

O'Keefe, J., & Conway, D.H. (1978). Hippocampal place units in the freely moving rat: Why they fire where they fire. Experimental Brain Research, 31, 573-590.

O'Keefe, J., & Dostrovsky, J. (1971). The hippocampus as a spatial map. Preliminary evidence from unit activity in the freely moving rat. Brain Research, 34, 171-175.

O‘Keefe, J., & Nadel, L. (1978). The hippocampus as a cognitive map. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Olson, D.J. (1991). Species differences in spatial memory among Clark's nutcrackers, scrub jays, and pigeons. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 17, 363-376.

Olson, D.J., Kamil, A.C., Balda, R.P., & Nims, P.J. (1995). Performance of four seed-caching corvid species in operant tests of nonspatial and spatial memory. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 109, 173-181.

Olthof, A., Sutton, J.E., Slumskie, S. V., D'Addetta, J., & Roberts, W.A. (1999). In search of the cognitive map: Can rats learn an abstract pattern of rewarded arms on the radial maze? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 25, 352-362.

Olton, D.S., Branch, M., & Best, P.J. (1978). Spatial correlates of hippocampal unit activity. Experimental Neurology, 58, 387-409.

Olton, D.S., & Samuelson, R.J. (1976). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 2, 97-116.

O'Mara, S.M. (1995). Spatially selective firing properties of hippocampal formation neurons in rodents and primates. Progress in Neurobiology, 45, 253-274.

Ormerod, B.K., & Galea, L.A.M. (2003). Reproductive status influences the survival of new cells in the dentate gyrus of adult male meadow voles. Neuroscience Letters, 346, 25-28.

Osorio, D., Smith, A.C., Vorobyev, M., & Buchanan-Smith, H.M. (2004). Detection of fruit and the selection of primate visual pigments for color vision. American Naturalist, 164, 696-708.

Paine, R. T. (1963).  Food recognition and predation on Opisthobranchs by Navanax inermis. The Veliger, 6, 1-9.

Papi, F., Fiore, L., Fiaschi, V., Benvenuti, S., & Baldaccini, N.E. (1972). Olfaction and homing in pigeons. Monitore Zoologico Italiano (N.S.), 6, 85-95.

Papi, F. (1990). Olfactory navigation in birds. Experientia, 46, 352-362. 

Pearce, J.M., Good, M.A., Jones, P.M., & McGregor, A. (2004). Transfer of spatial behaviour between different environments: Implications for theories of spatial learning and for the role of the hippocampus in spatial learning.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 30(2), 135-147.

Pearce, J.M., Graham, M., Good, M.A., Jones, P.M., & McGregor, A. (2006). Potentiation, overshadowing, and blocking of spatial learning based on the shape of the environment. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 32, 201-214.

Pearce, J.M., Ward-Robinson, J., Good, M., Fussell, C., & Aydin, A. (2001). Influence of a beacon on spatial learning based on the shape of the test environment. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 27, 329-344.

Penick, S., & Solomon, P.R. (1991). Hippocampus, context, and conditioning. Behavioral Neuroscience, 105, 611-617.

Perdeck, A.C. (1958). Two types of orientation in migrating Starlings Sturnus vulgaris and Chaffinches Fringilla coelebs as revealed by displacement experiments. Ardea, 46, 1-37. 

de Perera, T.B. (2004). Fish can encode order in their spatial map. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 271, 2131-2134.

Perrot-Sinal, T.S., Kostenuik, M.A., Ossenkopp, K.-P., & Kavaliers, M. (1996). Sex differences in performance in the Morris water maze and the effects of initial nonstationary hidden platform training. Behavioral Neuroscience, 110, 1309-1320.

Peterson, A.T. (1993). Adaptive geographical variation in bill shape of scrub jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens). American Naturalist, 142, 508-527.

Phillips, J.B. (1986a). Magnetic compass orientation in the Eastern red-spotted newt Notophthalmus viridescens. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 158, 103-109. 

Phillips, J.B. (1986b). Two magnetoreceptor pathways in a migratory salamander. Science, 233, 765-767. 

Phillips, J.B. (1996). Magnetic navigation. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 180, 309-319. 

Phillips, J.B., Adler, K., & Borland, S.C. (1995). True navigation by an amphibian. Animal Behaviour, 50, 855-858. 

Phillips, J.B., & Borland, S.C. (1992a). Magnetic compass orientation is eliminated under near-infrared light in the Eastern red-spotted newt, Notophthalmus viridescens. Animal Behaviour, 44, 796-797. 

Phillips, J.B., & Borland, S.C. (1992b). Wavelength-specific effects of light on magnetic compass orientation of the Eastern red-spotted newt Notophthalmus viridescens. Ecology, Ethology, Evolution, 4, 33-42. 

Phillips, J.B., & Borland, S.C. (1994). Use of a specialized magnetoreception system for homing by the Eastern red-spotted newt, Notophthalmus viridescens. Journal of Experimental Biology, 188, 275-291.

Phillips, J.B., Borland, S.C., Freake, M.J., Brassart, J., & Kirschvink, J.L. (2002a).  `Fixed-axis' magnetic orientation by an amphibian: Non-shoreward-directed compass orientation, misdirected homing or positioning a magnetite-based map detector in a consistent alignment relative to the magnetic field?  Journal of Experimental Biology, 205(24), 3903-3914. 

Phillips, J.B., & Deutschlander, M.E. (1997). Magnetoreception in terrestrial vertebrates: Implications for possible mechanisms of EMF interaction with biological systems. In R.G. Stevens, L.E. Andrews, & B.W. Wilson (Eds.), The melatonin hypothesis: Electric power and the risk of breast cancer (pp. 111-172). Columbus, OH: Battelle Press.

Phillips, J.B., Freake, M.J., Fischer, J.H., & Borland, S.C. (2002b). Behavioural titration of a magnetic map coordinate. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 188, 157-160. 

Phillips, J.B., & F.R. Moore (1992).  Calibration of the sun‑compass of a migratory bird by sunset polarized light patterns.  Behavioral  Ecology &  Sociobiology, 31,189‑194.

Phillips, J.B., & Waldvogel, J.A. (1982).  Reflected light cues generate the short-term deflector-loft effect. In F. Papi & E. Wallraff (Eds.), Avian navigation (pp. 190-202). Berlin, Springer-Verlag. 

Phillips, J.B., & Waldvogel, J.A. (1988). Celestial polarized patterns as a calibration reference for sun compass of homing pigeons. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 131, 55-67. 

Phillips, R.G., & LeDoux, J.E. (1994). Lesions of the dorsal hippocampal formation interfere with background but not foreground contextual fear conditioning. Learning & Memory, 1, 34-44.

Pitelka, F.A. (1951). Speciation and ecologic distribution of American jays of the genus Aphelocoma. University of California Publications in Zoology, 50, 195-463.

Pizer, S.M., Fritsch, D.S., Yushkevich, P.A., Johnson, V.E., & Chaney, E.L. (1999). Segmentation, registration, and measurement of shape variation via image object shape.  IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 18, 851-865.

Ploeger, G.E., Spruijt, B.M., & Cools, A.R. (1994). Spatial localization in the Morris water maze in rats: Acquisition is affected by intra-accumbens injections of the dopaminergic antagonist haloperidol. Behavioral Neuroscience, 108, 927-934.

Plumert, J. M., Ewert, K., & Spear, S.J. (1995). The early development of children's communication about nested spatial relations. Child Development, 66, 959-969.

Postma, A., Izendoorn, R., & De Haan, E.H.F. (1998). Sex differences in object location memory. Brain and Cognition, 36, 334-345.

Poucet, B. (1997). Searching for spatial unit firing in the prelimbic area of the rat medial prefrontal cortex. Behavioural Brain Research, 84, 151-159.

Poucet, B., & Herrmann, T. (1990). Septum and medial frontal cortex contribution to spatial problem-solving. Behavioural Brain Research, 37, 269-280.

Poucet, B., Lenck-Santini, P.P., & Save, E. (2003). Drawing parallels between the behavioural and neural properties of navigation. In K.J. Jeffery (Ed.), The neurobiology of spatial behaviour (pp. 187-198). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Poucet, B., Save, E., & Lenck-Santini, P.P. (2000). Sensory and memory properties of hippocampal place cells. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 11, 95-111.

Pratt, W.E., & Mizumori, S.J.Y. (1998). Characteristics of basolateral amygdala neuronal firing on a spatial memory task involving differential reward. Behavioral Neuroscience, 112, 554-570.

Pratt, W.E., & Mizumori, S.J.Y. (2001). Neurons in rat medial prefrontal cortex show anticipatory rate changes to predictable differential rewards in a spatial memory task. Behavioural Brain Research, 123, 165-183.

Presson, C. C., & Montello, D. R. (1994). Updating after rotational and translational body movement: Coordinate structure of perspective space. Perception, 23(12), 1447-1455.

Quirk, G.J., Muller, R.U., & Kubie, J.L. (1990). The firing of hippocampal place cells in the dark depends on the rat's recent experience. Journal of Neuroscience, 10, 2008-2017.

Quirk, G.J., Muller, R.U., Kubie, J.L., & Ranck, J.B., Jr. (1992). The positional firing properties of medial entorhinal neurons: Description and comparison with hippocampal place cells. Journal of Neuroscience, 12, 1945-1963.

Ragozzino, M.E., Pal, S.N., Unick, K., Stefani, M.R., & Gold, P.E. (1998). Modulation of hippocampal acetylcholine release and spontaneous alternation scores by intrahippocampal glucose injections. Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 1595-1601.

Ranck, J.B. (1973). Studies on single neurons in dorsal hippocampal formation and septum in unrestrained rats. I. Behavioral correlates and firing repertoires. Experimental Neurology, 41, 461-531.

Rapp, D.N. (2005). Mental models: Theoretical issues for visualizations in science education. In J. K. Gilbert (Ed.), Visualization in science education (pp. 43-60). The Netherlands: Springer.

Rapp, D.N., Klug, J.L., & Taylor, H.A. (in press). Expectation-driven effects on spatial mental model use during reading. Memory & Cognition.

Rapp, D.N., & Taylor, H.A. (2004). Interactive dimensions in the construction of mental representastions for text. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 30, 988-1001.

Rapp, D.N., Taylor, H.A., & Crane, G. (2003). The impact of digital libraries on cognitive processes: Psychological issues of hypermedia. Computers in Human Behavior, 19, 609-628.

Rapp, D.N., & van den Broek, P. (2005). Dynamic text comprehension: An integrative view of reading. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 276-279.

Redish, A.D. (2001). The hippocampal debate: Are we asking the right questions? Behavioural Brain Research, 127, 81-98.

Reep, R.L., & Corwin, J.V. (1999). Topographic organization of the striatal and thalamic connections of rat medical agranular cortex. Brain Research, 84, 43-52.

Reep, R.L., Corwin, J.V., & Hashimoto, A. (1997). Efferent connections of the rostral portion of medial agranular cortex in rats. Brain Research Bulletin, 19, 203-221.

Reep, R.L., Corwin, J.V., Hashimoto, A., & Watson, R.T. (1984). Afferent connections of medial precentral cortex in the rat. Neuroscience Letters, 44, 247-252.

Reep, R.L., Goodwin, G.S., & Corwin, J.V. (1990). Topographic organization in the corticocortical connections of medial agranular cortex in rats.  Journal of Comparative Neurology, 294, 262-280.

Rehkamper, G., Haase, E., & Frahm, H.D. (1988). Allometric comparison of brain weight and brain structure volumes in different breeds of the domestic pigeon. Brain, Behaviour and Evolution, 31, 141-149.

Reid, A.K., & Staddon, J.E.R. (1998). A dynamic route finder for the cognitive map. Psychological Review, 105, 585-601.

Reitman, J.S., & Rueter, HR. (1980). Organization revealed by recall orders and confirmed by pauses. Cognitive Psychology, 12, 554-581.

Rescorla, R.A. (1991). Associative relations in instrumental learning: The eighteenth Bartlett memorial lecture.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 43B, 1-23.

Rich, S.S., & Taylor, H.A. (2000). Not all narrative shifts function equally. Memory & Cognition, 28, 1257-1266.

Rieser, J.J. (1989). Access to knowledge of spatial structure at novel points of observation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15(6), 1157-1165.

Rieser, J.J., Garing, A.E., & Young, M.F. (1994). Imagery, action, and young children's spatial orientation: It's not being there that counts, it's what one has in mind. Child Development, 65(5), 1262-1278.

Riley, D.A., Brown, M.F., & Yoerg, S.I. (1986). Understanding animal cognition.  In T.J. Knapp & L.C. Robertson (Eds.) Approaches to cognition: Contrasts and controversies (pp. 111-136). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum. 

Rinck, M., & Bower, G.H. (1995). Anaphora resolution and the focus of attention in situation models. Journal of Memory and Language, 34, 110-131.

Rinck, M., Bower, G.H., & Wolf, K. (1998). Distance effects in surface structures and situation models. Scientific Studies of Reading, 2, 221-246.

Rinck, M., Hahnel, A., Bower, G.H., & Glowalla, U. (1997). The metrics of spatial situation models. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 23, 622-637.

Rinck, M., Williams, P., Bower, G.H., & Becker, E.S. (1996). Spatial situation models and narrative understanding: Some generalizations and extensions. Discourse Processes, 21, 23-55.

Risold, P.Y., & Swanson, L.W. (1995). Evidence for a hypothalamothalamocortical circuit mediating pheromonal influences on eye and head movements. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 92, 3898-3902.

Ritz, T., Adem, S., & Schulten, K. (2000). A model for photoreceptor-based magnetoreception in birds. Biophysical Journal, 78, 707-718.

Ritz, T., Thalau, P., Phillips, J.B., Wiltschko, R., & Wiltschko, W. (2004). Resonance effects indicate a radical-pair mechanism for avian magnetic compass. Nature, 429(6988), 177-180. 

Roberts, W.A. (1979). Spatial memory in the rat on a hierarchical maze. Learning and Motivation, 10, 117-140.

Rodda, G.H. (1984). The orientation and navigation of juvenile alligators: Evidence of magnetic sensitivity. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 154, 649-658. 

Rodda, G.H., & Phillips, J.B. (1992). Navigational systems develop along similar lines in amphibians, reptiles and birds. Ecology, Ethology, Evolution, 4, 43-51. 

Romonchuk, W.J. (1995). The role of memory in cache-recovery in Clark's nutcrackers and pinyon jays. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ.

Rotenberg, A., & Muller, R.U. (1997). Variable place-cell coupling to a continuously viewed stimulus: Evidence that the hippocampus acts as a perceptual system. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 352, 1505-1513.

Saint Paul, Uv. (1953). Nachweis der sonnenorientierung bei nächtlich ziehenden Vögeln. Behaviour, 6, 1-7. 

Samet, H. (1980). Region representation: Quadtrees from boundary codes. Communications of the ACM, 23(2), 163-170.

Samsonovich, A., & McNaughton, B. L. (1997). Path integration and cognitive mapping in a continuous attractor neuronal network model. Journal of Neuroscience, 17, 5900-5920.

Sandstrom, N.J., Kaufman, J., & Huettel, S.A. (1998). Males and females use different distal cues in a virtual environment navigation task. Cognitive Brain Research, 6, 351-360.

Sauer, E.G.F., & Sauer, E.M. (1960). Star navigation of nocturnal migrating birds. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium Quantitative Biology, 25, 463-473. 

Save, E., Cressant, A., Thinus-Blanc, C., & Poucet, B. (1998). Spatial firing of hippocampal place cells in blind rats. Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 1818-1826.

Save, E., Guazzelli, A., & Poucet, B. (2001). Dissociation of the effects of bilateral lesions of the dorsal hippocampus and parietal cortex on path integration in the rat. Behavioral Neuroscience, 115, 1212-1223.

Schmajuk, N.A. (1990). Role of the hippocampus in temporal and spatial navigation: An adaptive neural network. Behavioural Brain Research, 39(3), 205-229.

Schmajuk, N.A., & Thieme A.D. (1992). Purposive behavior and cognitive mapping: An adaptive neural network. Biological Cybernetics, 67, 165-174.

Schmidt-Koenig, K. (1961). Die sonne als kompass im heim-orientierungssystem der brieftauben.  Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 68, 221 - 224.

Schmidt-Koenig, K (1966). Ueber die entfernung als parameter bei der anfangsorientierung der brieftaube. Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Physiologie, 52, 33-55.

Schmidt-Koenig, K. (1970). Entfernung und heimkehrverhalten der brieftaube. Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Physiologie, 68, 39-48.

Schmidt-Koenig, K. (1979). Avian orientation and navigation. London, Academic Press. 

Schmidt-Koenig, K. (1990). The sun compass. Experientia, 46, 336-342. 

Schmidt-Koenig, K., & Walcott, C. (1978). Tracks of pigeons homing with frosted lenses. Animal Behaviour, 26, 480-486.

Schölkopf, B., & Mallot, H.A. (1994). View-based cognitive mapping and path planning.  Adaptive Behaviour, 3(3), 311-348.

Schopmeyer, C.S. (1974). Seeds of wood plants in the United States. In Agriculture, Handbook (No. 540, pp. 196-197). Washington D.C.: U.S.D.A. Forest Service.

Schultz, A.C., Adams, W., & Yamauchi B. (1999). Integrating exploration localization and planning with a common representation. Autonomous Robots, 6, 293-308.

Schultz, W. (2002). Getting formal with dopamine and reward. Neuron, 36, 241-263.

Schultz, W., Apicella, P., Romo, R., & Scarnati, E. (1995). Context-dependent activity in primate striatum reflecting past and future behavioral events. In J.C. Houk, J.L. Davis, & D.G. Beiser (Eds.), Models of information processing in the basal ganglia (pp. 11-27). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Schultz, W., Dayan, P., & Montague, P.R. (1997). A neural substrate of prediction and reward. Science, 275, 1593-1599.

Schultz, W., Tremblay, L., & Hollerman, J.R. (2003). Changes in behavior-related neuronal activity in the striatum during learning. Trends in Neurosciences, 26, 321-328.

Scoville, W.B., & Milner, B. (1957). Loss of recent memory after bilateral hippocampal lesions. Journal of Neurochemistry, 20, 11-21.

Seamans, J.K., Floresco, S.B., & Phillips, A.G. (1995). Functional differences between the prelimbic and anterior cingulate regions of the rat prefrontal cortex. Behavioral Neuroscience, 109, 1063-1073.

Segal, M. (1979). A potent inhibitory monosynaptic hypothalamo-hippocampal connection. Brain Research, 162, 137-141.

Séguinot, V., Maurer, R., & Etienne, A.S. (1993). Dead reckoning in a small mammal: The evaluation of distance. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 173, 103-113.

Sesack, S.R., Deutch, A.Y., Roth, R.H., & Bunney, B.S. (1989). Topographical organization of the efferent projections of the medial prefrontal cortex in the rat: An anterograde tract-tracing study with Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin.  Journal of Comparative Neurology, 290, 213-242.

Shapiro, M.L., & Eichenbaum, H. (1999). Hippocampus as a memory map: Synaptic plasticity and memory encoding by hippocampal neurons. Hippocampus, 9, 365-384.

Sharp, P.E. (1991). Computer-simulation of hippocampal place cells. Psychobiology, 19(2), 103-115.

Sharp, P.E. (2002). The neural basis of navigation: Evidence from single cell recording. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Sharp, P.E., Blair, H.T., & Cho, J. (2001). The anatomical and computational basis of the rat head-direction cell signal. Trends in Neurosciences, 24, 289-294.

Sharp, P.E., & Green, C. (1994). Spatial correlates of firing patterns of single cells in the subiculum of the freely moving rat. Journal of Neuroscience, 14, 2339-2356.

Shelton, A. ., & McNamara, T.P. (1997). Multiple views of spatial memory. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 4(1), 102-106.

Shelton, A.L., & McNamara, T.P. (2001a). Systems of spatial refererence in human memory. Cognitive Psychology, 43(4), 274-310.

Shelton, A.L., & McNamara, T.P. (2001b). Visual memories from nonvisual experiences. Psychological Science, 12(4), 343-347.

Sherry, D. F., & Vaccarino, A. L. (1989). Hippocampus and memory for food caches in black-capped chickadees. Behavioral Neuroscience, 103, 308-318.

Sherry, D.F., Vaccarino, A.L., Buckenham, K., & Herz, R.S. (1989). The hippocampal complex of food-storing birds. Brain, Behavior, and Evolution, 34, 308-317.

Shettleworth, S.J., Krebs, J.R., Healy, S.D., & Thomas, C.M. (1990). Spatial memory of food-storing tits (Parus ater and P. atricapillus): Comparison of storing and nonstoring tasks. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 104, 71-81.

Shimizu, T., Bowers, A.N., Budzynski, C., Kahn, M.C., & Bingman, V.P. (2004). What does a pigeon brain look like during homing? Selective examination of ZENK expression in the telencephalon of pigeons navigating home. Behavioral Neuroscience, 118, 845-851.

Sholl, M. J. (1987). Cognitive maps as orienting schemata. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 13, 615-628.

Sholl, M.J. (2000). The functional separability of self-reference and object-to-object systems in spatial memory. In S. O'Nuallain (Ed.), Spatial cognition: Foundations and applications (pp. 45-67). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Sholl, M.J., & Nolin, T.L. (1997). Orientation specificity in representation of place. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 23(6), 1494-1507.

Shulzitski, J. (1999). Sex differences in the spatial memory ability of mated pinyon jays. Unpublished MS thesis, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ.

Siegel, J.J., Nitz, D., & Bingman, V.P. (2005). Spatial-specificity of single-units in the hippocampal formation of freely moving homing pigeons. Hippocampus, 15, 26-40.

Siegel, J.J., Nitz, D., & Bingman, V.P. (2006). Lateralized functional components of spatial cognition in the avian hippocampal formation: Evidence from single-unit recordings in freely moving homing pigeons. Hippocampus, 16, 125-140.

Silverman, I., Choi, J., Mackewn, A., Fisher, M., Moro, J., & Olshansky, E. (2000). Evolved mechanisms underlying wayfinding: Further studies on the hunter-gatherer theory of spatial sex differences. Evolution and Human Behavior, 21, 201-213.

Sinsch, U. (1990a). Migration and orientation in anuran amphibians. Etholology Ecology & Evolution, 2, 65-79.

Sinsch, U. (1990b). The orientation behaviour of three toad species (genus Bufo) displaced from the breeding site. In W. Hanke (Ed.) Biology and physiology of amphibians (Vol. 38, pp. 73-83). G. Fischer Verlag, Fortschritte der Zoologie.

Skaggs, W.E., Knierim, J.J., Kudrimoti, H.S., & McNaughton, B.L. (1995). A model of the neural basis of the rat’s sense of direction.  In G. Tesauro, D. Touretzky, & T. Leen (Eds.) Advances in neural information processing systems (Vol. 7). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Skaggs, W.E., & McNaughton, B.L. (1998). Spatial firing properties of hippocampal CA1 populations in an environment containing two visually identical regions. Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 8455-8466.

Skiles, D.D. (1985). The geomagnetic field: Its nature, history, and biological relevance. In J.L. Kirschvink, D.S. Jones, & B.J. McFadden (Eds.), Magnetite biomineralization and magnetoreception in organisms: A new biomagnetism (pp. 43-102). New York and London: Plenum Press. 

Smith, D. M., & Mizumori, S. J. Y. (2006). Learning-related development of context-specific neuronal responses to places and events: The hippocampal role in context processing. Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 3154-3163.

Smulders, T.V., & DeVoogd, T.J. (2000). Expression of immediate early genes in the hippocampal formation of the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) during a food-hoarding task. Behavioural Brain Research, 114, 39-49.

Sovrano, V.A., Bisazza, A., & Vallortigara, G. (2002). Modularity and spatial reorientation in a simple mind: Encoding of geometric and nongeometric properties of a spatial environment by fish. Cognition, 85, B51-B59.

Sovrano, V.A., Bisazza, A., & Vallortigara, G. (2003). Modularity as a fish (Xenotoca eiseni) views it: Conjoining geometric and nongeometric information for spatial reorientation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 29, 199-210.

Spencer, C., & Weetman, M. (1981). The microgenesis of cognitive maps - A longitudinal-study of new residents of an urban area. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 6, 375-384.

Spetch, M.L. (1995). Overshadowing in landmark learning: Touch-screen studies with pigeons and humans. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 21, 166-181.

Spetch, M.L., Cheng, K., & Macdonald, S.E. (1996). Learning the configuration of a landmark array I: Touch-screen studies with pigeons and humans. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 110(1), 55-68.

Spetch, M.L., Cheng, K., Macdonald, S.E., Linkenhoker, B. E., Kelly, D. M., & Doerkson, S. R. (1997). Learning the configuration of a landmark array: II. Generality across search tasks. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 111(1), 14-24.

Squire, L.R., & Zola-Morgan, S. (1991). The medial temporal lobe memory system. Science, 253, 1380-1386.

Staddon, J.E.R. (2001). Adaptive dynamics: The theoretical analysis of behavior. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Stegmann, B.K. (1934). On the ontogeny of the nutcracker (Kedrovka) (trans. L. Kelso). Dolk. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, 24, 267-269.

Steinhage, A., & Schöner, G. (1996). Self-calibration based on invariant view recognition: Dynamic approach to navigation. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 20, 133-156.

Stern, E.A., Jaeger, D., & Wilson, C.J. (1998). Membrane potential synchrony of simultaneously recorded striatal spiny neurons in vivo. Nature, 394, 475-478.

Stevens, A., & Coupe, P. (1978). Distortions in judged spatial relations, Cognitive Psychology, 10(4), 422-437.

Stevens, P.S. (1974). Patterns in nature.  New York: Little, Brown & Co.

Stotz, N.G., & Balda, R. P. (1995). Cache and recovery behavior of wild pinyon jays in Northern Arizona. Southwest Naturalist, 40, 180-184.

Sutherland, R.J., Chew, G. L., Baker, J.C., & Linggard, R.C. (1987). Some limitations on the use of distal cues in place navigation by rats.  Psychobiology, 15 (1), 48-57.

Suzuki, S., Augerinos, G., & Black, A.H. (1980). Stimulus control of spatial behavior on the eight-arm radial maze. Learning and Motivation, 11, 1-18.

Swanson, L.W., & Cowan, W.M. (1979). The connections of the septal region in the rat.  Journal of Comparative Neurology, 186, 621-656.

Swanson, L.W., & Kohler, C. (1986). Anatomical evidence for direct projections from the entorhinal area to the entire cortical mantle in the rat. Journal of Neuroscience, 6, 3010-3023.

Tarsitano, M.S., & Jackson, R.R. (1997). Araneophagic jumping spiders discriminate between detours that do and do not lead to prey. Animal Behaviour, 53(2), 257-266.

Taube, J.S., Muller, R.U. (1998). Comparisons of head direction cell activity in the postsubiculum and anterior thalamus of freely moving rats. Hippocampus, 8, 87-108.

Taylor, H.A., Naylor, S. J., & Chechile, N.A. (1999). Goal-directed influences on the representation of spatial perspective. Memory and Cognition, 27(2), 309-319.

Taylor, H.A., & Tversky, B. (1992a). Descriptions and depictions of environments. Memory & Cognition, 20, 483-496.

Taylor, H. A., & Tversky, B. (1992b). Spatial mental models derived from survey and route descriptions. Journal of Memory and Language, 31, 261-282.

Taylor, H.A., & Tversky, B. (1996). Perspective in spatial descriptions. Journal of Memory and Language, 35, 371-391.

Terrace, H.S. (1991). Chunking during serial-learning by a pigeon. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 17(1), 81-93.

Thinus-Blanc, C. (1996). Animal spatial cogntion: Behavioral and neural approaches. Singapore: World Scientific.

Thorndyke, P.W., & Hayes-Roth, B. (1982). Differences in spatial knowledge acquired from maps and navigation. Cognitive Psychology, 14, 560-589.

Tolman, E. C. (1948). Cognitive maps in rats and men. Psychological Review, 55, 189-208.

Tolman, E.C., & Honzik, C.H. (1930). Insight in rats. University of California Publications in Psychology, 4, 215-232.

Tomback, D. (1980). How nutcrackers find their seed stores.Condor, 82, 10-19.

Tomback, D. (1983). Nutcrackers and pines: Coevolution or coadaptation? In M.H. Nitecki (Ed.), Coevolution (pp. 179-223). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Tomback, D. (1998). Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana). In A. Poole & F. Gill (Eds.), The birds of North America (No. 331). Philadelphia, PA: The Birds of North America, Inc.

Tommasi, L., Gagliardo, A., Andrew, R.J., & Vallortigara, G. (2003). Separate processing mechanisms for encoding geometric and landmark information in the avian brain. European Journal of Neuroscience, 17, 1695-1702.

Tommasi, L., & Polli, C. (2004). Representation of two geometric features of the environment in the domestic chick (Gallus gallus). Animal Cognition, 7, 53-59.

Tommasi, L., & Vallortigara, G. (2000). Searching for the center: Spatial cognition in the domestic chick (Gallus gallus). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 26, 477-486.

Tommasi, L., Vallortigara, G., & Zanforlin, M. (1997). Young chicks learn to localize the center of a spatial environment. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 180, 567-572.

Touretzky, D.S., & Redish, A.D. (1996). Theory of rodent navigation based on interacting representations of space. Hippocampus, 6, 247-270.

Trullier, O., & Meyer, J.A. (1998). Animat navigation using a cognitive graph. In Blumberg et al. (Eds.). From animals to animats 5: Proceedings of the fifth international conference on simulation of adaptive behavior. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Turcek, F.J., & Kelso, L. (1968). Ecological aspects of food transportation and storage in the Corvidae. Communications in Behavioral Biology, Part A, 1, 277-297.

Tversky, B. (1993). Cognitive maps, cognitive collages, and spatial mental models. In A.U. Frank & I. Campari (Eds.), Spatial information theory: A theoretical basis for GIS (pp. 14-24). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Tversky, B., Morrison, J. B., & Betrancourt, M. (2002). Animation: Can it facilitate? International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 57(4), 247-262.

Uttal, D.H. (2000). Seeing the big picture: Map use and the development of spatial cognition. Developmental Science, 3, 247-286.

Uttal, D.H., Fisher, J.A., & Taylor, H.A. (2006). Words and maps: Developmental changes in mental models of spatial information. Developmental Science, 9(2), 221-235.

Vallortigara, G., Pagni, P., & Sovrano, V.A. (2004). Separate geometric and non-geometric modules for spatial reorientation: Evidence from a lopsided animal brain. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16, 390-400.

Vallortigara, G., Zanforlin, M., & Pasti, G. (1990). Geometric modules in animals' spatial representations: A test with chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 104, 248-254.

Vander Wall, S.B. (1982). An experimental analysis of cache recovery in Clark's nutcracker. Animal Behaviour 30, 84-94.

Vander Wall, S.B. (1990). Food hoarding in animals. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Vander Wall S.B., & Balda, R.P. (1977). Co-adaptation of the Clark's nutcracker and pinyon pine for efficient seed harvest and dispersal. Ecological Monographs, 47, 89-111.

Vander Wall, S.B., & Balda, R.P. (1981). Ecology and evolution of food-storage behavior in conifer-seed-caching corvids. Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie, 56, 217-242.

Vander Wall, S.B., & Hutchins, H.E. (1983). Dependence of Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) on conifer seeds during the post-fledging period. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 97, 208-214.

Vander Wall, S.B., Hoffman, S.W., & Potts, W.K. (1981). Emigration behavior of Clark's nutcrackers. Condor, 83, 162-170.

Vanderwolf, C.H. (1969). Hippocampal electrical activity and voluntary movement in the rat. Clinical Neurophysiology, 26, 407-418.

Vargas, J.P., & López, J.C. (2005). Different ways of encoding geometric information by goldfish (Carassius auratus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 119, 458-460. 

Vargas, J.P., López, J.C., Salas, C., & Thinus-Blanc, C. (2004). Encoding of geometric and featural information by goldfish (Carassius auratus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 118, 206-216.

Vargas, J.P., Petruso, E.J., & Bingman, V.P. (2004). Hippocampal formation and geometric navigation in pigeons. European Journal of Neuroscience, 20, 1937-1944.

Vogt, B.A., & Miller, M.W. (1983). Cortical connections between rat cingulate cortex and visual, motor, and postsubicular cortices.  Journal of Comparative Neurology, 216, 192-210.

Voicu, H. (2003). Hierarchical cognitive maps. Neural Networks, 16, 569-576.

Voicu, H., & Schmajuk, N.A. (2001a). Three-dimensional cognitive mapping with a neural network. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 35, 21-35.

Voicu, H., & Schmajuk, N.A. (2001b). Hierarchical cognitive maps. Fifth international conference on cognitive and neural systems, ICCNS '01, Boston, USA.

Voicu H., & Schmajuk, N.A. (2002). Exploration, navigation and cognitive mapping. Adaptive Behavior, 8(3-4), 207-223.

Voyer, D., Voyer, S., & Bryden, M.P. (1995). Magnitude of sex differences in spatial abilities: A meta-analysis and consideration of critical variables. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 250-270.

Walcott, C. (1991).  Magnetic maps in pigeons. In P. Berthold (Ed.) Orientation in birds (pp. 38-51). Basel: Birkhäuser Verlag. 

Walcott, C., & Schmidt-Koenig, K, (1973). The effect on pigeon homing of anesthesia during displacement. Auk, 90, 281-286.

Waldvogel, J.A. (1987). Olfactory navigation in homing pigeons: Are the current models atmospherically realistic? Auk, 104, 369-379.

Waldvogel, J.A., Benvenuti, S., Keeton, W.T., & Papi, F. (1978). Homing pigeon orientation influenced by deflected winds at home loft. Journal of Comparative Physiology, 128, 297-301.

Waldvogel, J.A., & Phillips, J.B. (1982). Pigeon Homing: New experiments involving permanent-resident deflector-loft birds. In F. Papi, & H.G. Wallraff (Eds.), Avian Navigation (pp. 179-189). Berlin: Springer Verlag.

Walker, M., Diebel, C.E., Haugh, C.V., Pankhurst, P.M., Montogmery, J.C., & Green, C.R. (1997). Structure and function of the vertebrate magnetic sense. Nature, 390, 371-376.

Walker, M.M., Dennis, T.E., & Kirschvink, J.L. (2002). The magnetic sense and its use in long-distance navigation by animals. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 12, 735-744.   

Wall, P.L., Botly, L.C.P., Black, C.K., & Shettleworth, S.J. (2004). The geometric module in the rat: Independence of shape and feature learning in a food finding task. Learning & Behavior, 32, 289-298.

Waller, D., Loomis, J. M., & Haun, D. B. M. (2004). Body-based senses enhance knowledge of directions in large-scale environments. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11(1), 157-163.

Wallraff, H.G. (1974). Das navigationssystem der Vögel. Munich: R.Oldenburg.

Wallraff, H.G. (1990). Navigation by homing pigeons. Ethology, Ecology, & Evolution, 2, 81-115.

Wallraff, H.G. (1999). The magnetic map of homing pigeons: An evergreen phantom. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 197, 265-269.

Wallraff, H.G. (2001). Navigation by homing pigeons: Updated perspective. Ethology, Ecology, & Evolution, 13, 1-48.

Wallraff, H.G. (2004). Avian olfactory navigation: Its empirical foundation and conceptual state. Animal Behaviour, 67, 189-204.

Wallraff, H.G., Kiepenheuer, J., Neumann, M.F., & Streng, A. (1995).  Homing experiments with starlings deprived of the sense of smell. Condor, 97, 20-26.

Wan, R.Q., Pang, K., & Olton, D.S. (1994). Hippocampal and amygdaloid involvement in nonspatial and spatial working memory in rats: Effects of delay and interference. Behavioral Neuroscience, 108, 866-882.

Wang, R.F. (2004). Between reality and imagination: When is spatial updating automatic? Perception & Psychophysics, 66(1), 68-76.

Wang, R.F., & Brockmole, J.R. (2003a). Human navigation in nested environments. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 29(3), 398-404.

Wang, R.F., & Brockmole, J.R. (2003b). Simultaneous spatial updating in nested environments. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 10(4), 981-986.

Wang, R.F., & Spelke, E.S. (2000). Updating egocentric representations in human navigation. Cognition, 77, 215-250.

Wang, R.F., & Spelke, E.S. (2002). Human spatial representation: Insights from animals. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6, 376-382.

Wang, R.F., & Spelke, E.S. (2003). Comparative approaches to human navigation. In K.J. Jeffery (Ed.), The neurobiology of spatial behaviour (pp. 119-143). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Warren, S. G., & Juraska, J.M. (1997). Spatial and nonspatial learning across the rat estrous cycle. Behavioral Neuroscience, 111, 259-266.

Watson, A. B., & Robson, J.G. (1981). Discrimination at threshold: Labeled detectors in human vision. Vision Research, 21, 1115-1122.

Wauchope, K. (1996). Multimodal interaction with a map-based simulation system (Technical Report No. AIC-96-019). Washington, D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory.

Webb, B. (2000). What does robotics offer animal behaviour? Animal Behaviour, 60, 545-558.

Webb, J.K., & Shine, R. (1992). To find an ant: Trail-following in Australian blindsnakes (Typhlopidae). Animal Behaviour, 43, 941-948.

Wehner, R. (1998). Navigation in context: Grand theories and basic mechanisms. Journal of Avian Biology, 29, 370-386. 

Weindler, P., Wiltschko, R., & Wiltschko, W. (1996).  Magnetic information affects the stellar orientation of young bird migrants. Nature, 383, 158-160. 

Westcott, P.W. (1964). Invasion of Clark's nutcrackers and pinyon jays into southeastern Arizona. Condor, 66, 441.

Whishaw, I.Q. (1991). Latent leaning in a swimming pool place task by rats: Evidence for the use of associative and not cognitive mapping processes. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 43B, 83-103.

Whishaw, I.Q., & Gorny, B. (1999). Path integration absent in scent-tracking fimbria-fornix rats: Evidence for hippocampal involvement in "sense of direction" and "sense of distance" using self-movement cues. Journal of Neuroscience, 19, 4662-4673.

Whishaw, I.Q., Hines, D.J., & Wallace, D.G. (2001). Dead reckoning (path integration) requires the hippocampal formation: Evidence from spontaneous exploration and spatial learning tasks in light (allothetic) and dark (idiothetic) tests. Behavioural Brain Research, 127, 49-69.

Whishaw, I.Q., McKenna, J.E., & Maaswinkel, H. (1997). Hippocampal lesions and path integration. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 7, 228-234.

White, A.R., Strasser, R., & Bingman, V.P. (2002). Hippocampus lesions impair landmark array spatial learning in homing pigeons: A laboratory study. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 78, 65-78.

White, E.M., Goncalves, D.M., Partridge, J.C., & Oliveira, R.F. (2004). Vision and visual variation in the peacock blenny. Journal of Fish Biology, 65, 227-250.

Wiener, S.I. (1993). Spatial and behavioral correlates of striatal neurons in rats performing a self-initiated navigation task. Journal of Neuroscience, 13, 3802-3817.

Wilkie, D.M., Willson, R.J., & Kardal, S. (1989). Pigeons discriminate pictures of a geographic location. Animal Learning & Behavior, 17, 163-171.

Williams, C.L., Barnett, A. M., & Meck, W.H. (1990). Organizational effects of gonadal secretions on sexual differentiation in spatial memory. Behavioral Neuroscience, 104, 84-97.

Williams, C.L., & Meck, W.H. (1991). The organizational effects of gonadal steroids on sexually dimorphic spatial ability. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 16, 155-176.

Wilson, C.J. (1995). The contribution of cortical  neurons to the firing pattern of striatal spiny neurons. In J.C. Houk, J.L. Davis, & D.G. Beiser (Eds.), Models of information processing in the basal ganglia (pp. 29-50). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Wilson, M.A., & McNaughton, B.L. (1993). Dynamics of the hippocampal ensemble code for space. Science, 261, 1055-1058.

Wilson, S.G., Rinck, M., McNamara, T. P., Bower, G.H.,, & Morrow, D. G. (1993). Mental models and narrative comprehension: Some qualifications. Journal of Memory and Language, 32, 141-154.

Wiltschko, R. (1996).  The function of olfactory input in pigeon orientation: Does it provide navigational information or play another role? Journal of Experimental Biology, 199(1), 113-119. 

Wiltschko, R., & Wiltschko, W. (1981). The development of sun compass orientation in young homing pigeons. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 9, 135 - 141. 

Wiltschko, R., Schöps, M., & Kowalski, U. (1989).  Pigeon homing: Wind exposition determines the importance of olfactory input. Naturwissenschaften, 76, 229-231. 

Wiltschko, R., & Wiltschko, W. (1995).  Magnetic orientation in animals. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. 

Wiltschko, R., & Wiltschko, W. (1998). Pigeon homing: Effect of various wavelengths of light during displacement. Naturwissenschaften, 85, 164-167.

Wiltschko, R., & Wiltschko, W. (2000). A strategy for beginners! Reply to Wallraff (2000). Animal Behaviour, 60, F37-F43.

Wiltschko, R., & Wiltschko, W. (2003). Avian navigation: From historical to modern concepts. Animal Behaviour, 65, 257-272. 

Wiltschko, W., & Balda, R.P. (1989). Sun compass orientation in seed caching scrub jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens). Journal of Comparative Physiology, 164, 717-721.

Wiltschko, W., Balda, R.P., Jahnel, M., & Wiltschko, R. (1999). Sun compass orientation in seed-caching corvids: Its role in spatial memory. Animal Cognition, 2, 215-221. 

Wiltschko, W., Daum, P., Fergenbauer-Kimmel, A., & Wiltschko, R. (1987). The development of the star compass in garden warblers Sylvia borin. Ethology, 74, 285-292. 

Wiltschko, W., & Gwinner, E. (1974). Evidence for an innate magnetic compass in garden warblers. Naturwissenschaften, 61, 406.

Wiltschko, W., Munro, U., Ford, H., & Wiltschko, R. (1993). Red light disrupts magnetic orientation of migratory birds. Nature, 364, 525-527. 

Wiltschko, W., Munro, U., Ford, H., & Wiltschko, R. (2003). Lateralization of magnetic compass orientation in silvereyes, Zosterops l. lateralis. Australian Journal of Zoology, 51, 597-602. 

Wiltschko, W., Munro, U., Wiltschko, R., & Kirschvink, J.L. (2002).  Magnetite-based magnetoreception in birds: The effect of a biasing field and a pulse on migratory behavior. Journal of Experimental Biology, 205(19), 3031-3037. 

Wiltschko, W., Traudt, J., Güntürkün, O., Prior, H., & Wiltschko, R. (2002). Lateralization of magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird. Nature, 419, 467-470. 

Wiltschko, W., & Wiltschko, R. (1972). Magnetic compass of European robins. Science, 176, 62-64.

Wiltschko, W., & Wiltschko, R. (1975). The interaction of stars and magnetic field in the orientation systems of night migrating birds. II. Spring experiments with European robins (Erithacus rubecula) Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 39, 265-282.

Wiltschko, W., & Wiltschko, R. (1995). Migratory orientation of European robins is affected by the wavelength of light as well as by a magnetic pulse. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 177, 363-369.

Wiltschko, W., & Wiltschko, R. (1999). The effect of yellow and blue light on magnetic compass orientation in European robins Erithacus rubecula. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 184, 295-299. 

Wiltschko, W., & Wiltschko, R. (2001). Light-dependent magnetoreception in birds: The behaviour of European robins, Erithacus rubecula, under monochromatic light of various wavelengths and intensities. Journal of Experimental Biology, 204, 3295-3302. 

Winson, J. (1984). Neural transmission through the hippocampus: Dependence on behavioral state. In F. Reinoso-Suarez, & C. Ajmone-Marsan (Eds.), Cortical integration (pp. 131-146). New York: Raven.

Winson, J. (1978). Loss of hippocampal theta rhythm results in spatial memory deficit in the rat. Science, 201, 160-163.

Wood, E.R., Dudchenko, P.A., Robitsek, R.J., & Eichenbaum, H. (2000). Hippocampal neurons encode information about different types of memory episodes occurring in the same location. Neuron, 27, 623-633.

Yeagley, H.L. (1947). A preliminary study of a physical basis of bird navigation. Part I. Journal of Applied Physics, 18(12), 1035-1063. 

Yeagley, H.L. (1951). A preliminary study of a physical basis of bird navigation. Part II. Journal of Applied Physics, 22(6), 746-760.

Yeap, W.K., & Jefferies, M.E. (1999). Computing representations of the local environment. Artificial Intelligence, 107, 265-301.

Yeshenko, O., Guazzelli, A., & Mizumori, S.J.Y. (2004). Context-dependent reorganization of spatial and movement representations by simultaneously recorded hippocampal and striatal neurons during performance of allocentric and egocentric tasks. Behavioral Neuroscience, 118, 751-769.

Yeschenko, O., Guazzelli, A., & Mizumori, S. J. Y. (2001). Differential hippocampal neuronal activity during place or response performance on a T-maze.  Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, Program No. 953.8.

Zentall, T. R. (1993). Animal cognition: An approach to the study of animal behavior.  In T. R. Zentall (Ed.) Animal cognition: Essays in Honor of Donald A. Riley (pp. 3-15). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 

Zheng, T., & Wilson, C.J. (2002). Corticostriatal combinatorics: The implications of corticostriatal axonal arborizations. Journal of Neurophysiology, 87, 1007-1017.

Zhou, T.L., Tamura, R., Kuriwaki, J., & Ono, T. (1999). Comparison of medial and lateral septal neuron activity during performance of spatial tasks in rats. Hippocampus, 9, 220-234.

Zilles, K., & Wree, A. (1995). Cortex: Areal and laminar structure. In G. Paxinos (Ed.), The rat nervous system (pp. 649-685). San Diego: Academic.

Zipser, D. (1985). A computational model of hippocampal place fields. Behavioral Neuroscience, 99, 1006-1018.

Zusi, R.L. (1987). A feeding adaptation of the jaw articulation in new world jays (Corvidae). Auk, 104, 665-680.

Zwaan, R.A., & Radvansky, G.A. (1998). Situation models in language comprehension and memory. Psychological Bulletin, 123(2), 162-185.