Avian Visual Cognition

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Categorization and Acquired Equivalence - Urcuioli

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Figure 1.



Figure 2. The display and response apparatus used in the categorization-by-appearance studies by Bhatt et al. (1998).

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Figure 4.  Percentage of trials in which pigeons correctly classified pictures of cats, chairs, cars and flowers in Bhatt et al. (1988).  Base = baseline (training) trials with familiar pictures, Test = trials with novel pictures.

Figure 5. Acquisition of category vs. pseudocategory discriminations by pigeons. (Adapted from Wasserman et al., 1988).

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Figure 6. A design to assess categorization by common reward associations.

Figure 7.  Transfer of matching across samples with common reward associations.  Base = baseline accuracy with familiar samples, Test = accuracy of choice with novel samples.

Figure 8.

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Figure 9.  Categorization-by-association results from Wasserman et al. (1992).  Baseline = choice accuracy with explicitly trained samples, Test = choice accuracy with "untrained" samples.


Figure 10.  Categorization-by-association results for six pigeons from Urcuioli et al. (1989, Experiment 2) over the initial trials of transfer testing.

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Figure 11.  Proportion of correct choices following, and proportion of categorization-consistent calls to, the newly introduced samples in the many-to-one task of Manabe et al. (1995, Experiment 3).

Figure 12.  A design to compare transfer following Many-to-one vs. One-to-many training.

Figure 13. Categorization-by-association results after many-to-one and a control (one-to-many) training condition for consistently and inconsistently tested pigeons (blue and orange bars, respectively) in Urcuioli et al. (1995, Experiment 2).

Figure 14.  Note: Red, Green, Circle, and Dot are samples.  Blue and Yellow are correct choice alternatives.

Figure 15.  Categorization-by-association results for consistently and inconsistently tested pigeons (blue and orange bars, respectively) when many-to-one training preceded (Group First) or followed (Group Second) learning of different choices to two of the many-to-one samples.

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Figure 16. A retrospective mediational account of transfer.