Avian Visual Cognition







How to use the different features of this cyberbook


Organization and Navigation of Contents

This book is organized into separate chapters, each written by a different contributing author or authors. Each chapter has the following navigational features. Located at the top of each page is a navigation logo, like the one above, that allows you to go directly to the Table of Contents, the Search Engine, or Print facility.

 Besides using the traditional table of contents to navigate between the chapters, there is an additional drop down menu located in the upper right corner of each page. 

This menu allows you to navigate directly from one chapter to another. Because of the experimental nature of this book, two general types of chapters have evolved in its preparation. Some chapters consist of a single HTML page, while others seemed to more naturally fit into separate sections. For the latter type of chapter, a second drop-down menu appears in the leftmost teal column. This menu allows you to navigate among the different sections of that specific chapter. In addition, for these chapters a link to the next section of that chapter is located at the left and at the bottom of each section. Finally, at the beginning of each chapter is an outline with direct links to the various sections of a chapter. 

Pop-up Windows


 Throughout the book are links to pop-up windows, like the example above, that contain data or graphical information critical  to each chapter. The key advantage of the pop-up windows is that they dramatically reduce the download times associated with graphics when first visiting a chapter.  These pop-up Click here to view Figure 16windows are indicated by blue highlighted text and a thumbnail image of the material to be shown. A click on these links with bring up a second window in the top/left corner of your screen. Once this second window is open, you can switch back and forth between the windows by clicking on the top of the window or moving the second window. To close this window, you have three options: 1) click the normal close window button, 2) click on the text "[Return to Main Text]" at the top of the window or 3) click on the "Close this window and return to text" button at the bottom of each window. You don't have to close this window to see subsequent images, but be aware that if you click on another link, the second window will go behind the main window and you will need to click on the task bar to bring it forward. Also pay attention to the caveat associated with looking at pop-ups located by the search engine.


 The videos in this book appear in four different formats: Apple QuickTime, RealMedia, Windows AVI, and Windows Media Player. This wide selection assures that at least one of them will likely already work with your current operating system. If not, listed below is the contact information to download the video software you prefer to use with your operating system.

Videos are offered in two sizes. The smaller size (160 x 120 pixels ) is better suited to modem connections, while the larger one (320 x 240 pixels) can be used with faster T1 or cable connections. The videos in the book can be seen by clicking on the appropriate icon and then selecting the size and format of your choice on the left side of the pop-up window that will appear (see below). The static example shows you what this screen looks like. Click here to see a video from Peter Balsam's chapter. Note that selection of AVI format often requires a single click on the image to start the video after it appears.


 The references in this book have several special features. The first is that, where ever possible, each is linked to a database that can provide further information. This most often takes the form of the abstract located at the Pubmed site. Anytime you see a reference with its title linked in blue like the one below, you should be able to see its linked abstract. Use the 'back' button on your browser to return to the book after viewing the abstract.

     Cook, R. G., Katz, J. S., & Cavoto, B. R. (1997). Pigeon same-different concept learning with multiple stimulus classes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 23, 417-433.

When encountered within the context of a chapter, clicking on the reference's title will move you to the book's complete reference section, at which point another click on that title will produce the abstract for that reference. 

A second way that you can easily view a chapter's references is to press the 'r' key at any point when you are reading a chapter. This will produce a pop-up window like the one below. It will contain all of the references for that chapter. You can scroll down this window and locate any reference of interest. In addition, if you click on the linked titles you can view the abstract using the same method as described above. Press the  'r' key to see a pop-up window using this feature. Use the "return to text" option at the top or the close window at the bottom to close this window.

Search Engine

  To help search and locate specific information in this book, a search engine is provided. This form can be used to search the book's documents for specific words or combinations of words. This output displays a weighted list of matching documents, with better matches shown first. Each list item is a link to a matching document; if the document has a title it will be shown, otherwise only the document's file name is displayed.

One small caveat in using this engine. Because of the use of pop-up windows in this book, the search engine can directly find and link to these pages as well. An asterisk (*) at the end of the title indicates such a file. After you look at such a page from this engine, you should back out using your browser's back function. If you choose "return to text" or the " close the window" button as you would normally when reading a chapter, it will instead try to close your browser's session. To locate the chapter that a specific pop-up window comes from, look at the URL location window of your browser, the directory name will match the first author's. I wish this inconvenience could be avoided, but there is no easy way to link directly backward to a chapter from such a window.

Examples of the query language used with this engine are provided below and with the engine

The text search engine allows queries to be formed from arbitrary Boolean expressions containing the keywords AND, OR, and NOT, and grouped with parentheses. For example:

visual cognition

finds documents containing 'visual' or 'cognition'

visual or cognition

same as above

visual and cognition

finds documents containing both 'visual' and 'cognition'

information not retrieval

finds documents containing 'visual' but not 'cognition'

(visual not cognition) and pigeon

finds documents containing 'pigeon', plus 'visual' but not 'cognition'


finds documents containing words starting with 'pigeon'

On-Line Discussion Group 

The book also contains an on-line discussion group.  You can easily post or view comments using the instructions that are present at that portion of the site.

Printing Chapters

To print the individual chapters, use the print option on your browser to print the text from each chapter. Because the figures in the pop-up windows will not print (and in the case of videos couldn't be printed) with this method, use the options provided below to print those figures and captions. 

Two options are available:

Print the HTML file containing all of the chapter's figures by first clicking on the HTML link, then use your browser's print option. Some of the images have been resized to help fit a variety of printers. A visual separator has been added between figures. Note, however, that most printers will occasionally cut a figure in two across different pages.

Download and view a PDF version of the figures. For the latter you will need to have the Adobe Acrobat reader on your system. Again some of the images have been resized. A separator has been added between figures. This option typically produces the least paper and guarantees that figures will not be split across breaks, unlike the first method. A  facility for printing entire chapters may be added depending upon demand.